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Singapore's general elections to form its 12th Parliament were held on 7 May 2011. The Parliament of Singapore's maximum term is five years, within which it must be dissolved by the President of Singapore and elections held within three months, as stated in the Constitution of Singapore.[1] Voting is mandatory in Singapore and is based on the first-past-the-post system. Elections are conducted by the Elections Department, which is under the jurisdiction of the Prime Minister’s Office. On 19 April 2011, President S.R. Nathan dissolved parliament. Nomination day was held on 27 April 2011, and for the second election in a row, the PAP did not officially return to power on nomination day, but it did return to power on the polling day. This election also marked the first and the only three-cornered fight since 2001 in Punggol East SMC before it increased to four-cornered fight on a by-election held two years later.

The election was described as a "watershed election" in various forms by various parties. The ruling PAP reminded voters that the election will determine "Singapore's next generation of leaders".[2] The Workers' Party called it a "watershed election" both for Singapore and the opposition, as it marked the first time in two decades that the only two incumbent opposition MPs moved out of their respective strongholds and contested in Group Representation Constituencies (GRCs), risking a situation where there would be "no elected opposition MPs".[3] This was despite the elections having the highest proportion of contested seats since independence, with 82 of 87 seats contested (or 94.3%).[4] 2011 was the year that saw the highest number of seats contested since post-independence; with the second being in 1972 when 87.7% of seats were contested (or 57 out of 65 seats),[5] It marked the first electoral contests in Bishan-Toa Payoh (since 1991) and Holland-Bukit Timah, and also marked Tanjong Pagar as the only constituency to remain uncontested since its formation in 1991.

The final results saw a 6.46% swing against the PAP from the 2006 elections to 60.14%, its lowest since independence.[6] While the PAP met most expectations to sweep into power and claim over two-thirds of parliamentary seats, winning 81 out of 87 seats, it however lost Aljunied Group Representation Constituency to the Workers' Party of Singapore marking first time a GRC was won by an opposition party. Including the Hougang Single Member Constituency, the Workers' Party ended up with six seats in Parliament, the best opposition parliamentary result since independence.[7][8]

As six Members of Parliament from the opposition were elected, just three Non-Constituency Member of Parliament seats were offered, one to the Singapore People's Party's Lina Chiam; another to the WP's Yee Jenn Jong; and a third to Gerald Giam of the WP's East Coast Group Representation Constituency team. These offers were all accepted, resulting in a total of nine opposition MPs after the election.[9][10]

Background[]

The 2011 General Election was the 16th General Election in Singapore and the 11th since independence. The governing People's Action Party (PAP) sought to secure their 13th consecutive term in office since 1959. This was the second election since Lee Hsien Loong became its Secretary-General.

Parliamentary reform[]

On 11 March 2010, the Government tabled three bills in the parliament to amend the Constitution, the Presidential Elections Act and the Parliamentary Elections Act.[11] These amendments reduced the number of Group representation constituencies (GRC), increased the number of Non-Constituency Members of Parliament (NCMPs) to a maximum of nine (inclusive of the number of elected opposition members of Parliament), and the number of Nominated Members of Parliament (NMPs) permanent also to nine.[11] A one-day "cooling-off" day was implemented, during which campaigning was forbidden, with only party political broadcasts allowed. Internet campaigning was also formally legalised as a legitimate means of political campaigning.[11] On 26 April 2010, the amendments to the Constitution were passed by a vote of 74–1 after a three-hour debate on the bill.[12]

Political parties[]

Main article: List of political parties in Singapore

The governing People's Action Party (PAP) has been in power since Singapore's independence in 1965, and is currently led by the Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. Besides the ruling PAP, the other major political parties that may contest the upcoming elections are the Workers' Party of Singapore (WP) led by Low Thia Khiang, the Singapore People's Party led by Chiam See Tong which left the Singapore Democratic Alliance (SDA) in 2011, the Singapore Democratic Party (SDP) led by Chee Soon Juan,[note 1][13] the National Solidarity Party (NSP) led by Goh Meng Seng which left the SDA in 2007, the Reform Party (Singapore) led by Kenneth Jeyaretnam, and the Singapore Democratic Alliance (SDA) led by Desmond Lim, which is composed of the Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Singapura (Singapore Malay National Organization) (PKMS) and the Singapore Justice Party (SJP). The Reform Party is the newest party and was created on 18 June 2008 and was then led by former Member of Parliament J.B. Jeyaretnam. He could have stood for election after he was discharged from bankruptcy and reinstated to the bar,[14] however, Jeyaretnam died of heart failure on 30 September 2008 at the age of 82.[15] His eldest son, Kenneth Jeyaretnam has since taken up leadership of the party and is now its secretary-general.[16]

Electoral divisions[]

Main article: List of Singaporean electoral divisions

The Electoral Boundaries Review Committee normally publishes an updated list of electoral divisions just before elections are called. Prior to the latest amendments, there were fourteen GRCs, each with five or six seats, and nine Single Member Constituencies (SMC). There were a total of 84 seats being contested in the general election of 2006.

The new electoral map for 2011 was announced on 24 February 2011.[17][18]

File:Electoral boundaries during the Singapore general elections 2011.svg

Singapore electoral boundaries, released in February 2011

2006 2011
Seats
84
87
Electoral divisions
23
27
Group representation constituencies
14
15
Four-Member GRCs 0 2
Five-Member GRCs 9 11
Six-Member GRCs 5 2
Single member constituencies
9
12
Voters
2,158,704
2,347,198
Voters (overseas votes inclusive)
2,159,721
2,350,873

The changes made in the electoral divisions are as follows:

Constituency Changes
Aljunied GRC Absorbed portions of Kaki Bukit division from Marine Parade GRC, and a minor portion of Hougang SMC
Carved out portions of Aljunied-Hougang division to Ang Mo Kio GRC, and a minor portion of Aljunied-Hougang and Bedok Reservoir-Punggol divisions to Pasir Ris-Punggol GRC
Ang Mo Kio GRC Absorbed Aljunied-Hougang division (renamed to Ang Mo Kio-Hougang) from Aljunied GRC and Yio Chu Kang SMC
Carved out Nee Soon South division into Nee Soon GRC, and Sengkang West division into SMC
Bishan-Toa Payoh GRC No Change in Boundaries
Chua Chu Kang GRC New Constituency
Formed from a majority of Hong Kah GRC (except for Hong Kah North division, which carved into SMC), and Chua Chu Kang SMC
East Coast GRC Carved a portion of Kampong-Chai Chee to Marine Parade GRC
Holland-Bukit Timah GRC Ward downsized to four members
Carved out Buona Vista division into Tanjong Pagar GRC, a minor portion of Bukit Timah to West Coast GRC, and portions of Toh Guan to Jurong GRC
Jurong GRC Carved out Yuhua division into SMC
Portions of Jurong Central and Taman Jurong divisions, West Coast GRC and Hong Kah GRC were formed into Jurong Spring division
Marine Parade GRC Ward downsized to five members
Absorbed MacPherson SMC and a minor portion of Joo Chiat SMC
Portions of Kaki Bukit and the entire Kampong Ubi-Kembangan divisions, and Kampong Chai Chee division from East Coast GRC were formed into Kembangan-Chai Chee division
Carved out a portion of Kaki Bukit division to Aljunied GRC, and Mountbatten division into SMC
Moulmein-Kallang GRC New Constituency
Formed from Jalan Besar GRC (except for Kreta Ayer-Kim Seng division (excluding northern Hong Lim portions) which was absorbed into Tanjong Pagar GRC, and Whampoa division as a SMC), and Moulmein division from Tanjong Pagar GRC
Nee Soon GRC New Constituency
Formed from Nee Soon Central SMC, Nee Soon East SMC, Nee Soon South divisions from Ang Mo Kio GRC (excluding the Lentor area south of Seletar Expressway), and Canberra and Chong Pang divisions from Sembawang GRC[19]
Pasir Ris-Punggol GRC Carved out Punggol East division into SMC, and a minor portion of Punggol South division to Ang Mo Kio GRC
Portions of Punggol Central and North divisions were formed into Punggol West division
Sembawang GRC Ward downsized to five members
Carved out Canberra and Chong Pang to Nee Soon GRC
Portions of Sembawang and Woodlands were formed into Woodgrove division.
Tampines GRC No Change in Boundaries
Tanjong Pagar GRC Ward downsized to five members
Absorbed Buona Vista and Kreta Ayer-Kim Seng divisions from Holland-Bukit Timah GRC and Jalan Besar GRC, respectively
Carved out Moulmein division into Moulmein-Kallang GRC, and Radin Mas division into SMC
Merged Tanjong Pagar and Tiong Bahru divisions to form Tanjong Pagar-Tiong Bahru division
West Coast GRC Carved out portions of Pioneer division into SMC, while Jurong Industrial, Jurong Island, Gul Circle, Tuas and Joo Koon were transferred to Ayer Rajah division
Ayer Rajah-West Coast division were split into Ayer Rajah and West Coast divisions.

Nomination[]

Main article: Pre–election day events of the 2011 Singaporean general election

Timeline[]

Date Event
24 February Publication of Electoral Boundaries report
19 April Dissolution of 11th Parliament; Writ of Election issued
22 April Deadline of Submission of Political Donation Certificates
27 April Nomination Day/First Live Political Party Broadcast
27 April-5 May Campaigning Period
6 May Cooling-off Day/Second Live Political Party Broadcast
7 May Polling Day
11 May Overseas Votes Counting
16 May Candidates revealed for Non-Constituency Member of Parliament
21 May 12th Parliament assembled
10 October Opening of 12th Parliament

New candidates[]

Singapore Democratic Party[]

  • Dr Ang Yong Guan, 56-year-old Consultant Psychiatrist at Paragon Medical, President of the Singapore Psychiatric Association from 1997 to 1998 and Chairman of the Chapter of Psychiatrists, Academy of Medicine from 2001 to 2003.
  • Alec Tok, 46-year-old Artistic Director at One Kind Theatre LLC.
  • Mohd Isa Abdul Aziz, 53-year-old Business Development Manager for an Australian Oil and Gas company and a member of the Central Executive Committee of the Singapore Democratic Party.
  • Sadasivam Veriyah, 58-year-old ex-teacher and a unionist, former member of the People's Action Party.
  • Tan Jee Say, 57-year-old investment adviser and former Principal Private Secretary to then-DPM Goh Chok Tong.
  • Dr. Vincent Wijeysingha, 41-year-old Executive Director of Transient Workers Count Too (TWC2), a non-government organisation advocating the rights of low-waged migrant workers.

People's Action Party[]

  • Alex Yam, 30-year-old NTUC activist
  • Ang Hin Kee, 46-year-old chief executive of NTUC e2i.
  • Ang Wei Neng, 44-year-old vice-president of SBS Transit West District.
  • Chan Chun Sing, 42-year-old former SAF Chief of Army
  • Chia Shi-Lu, 40-year-old orthopaedic surgeon at Singapore General Hospital
  • David Ong, 50-year-old businessman
  • Desmond Choo, 33-year-old deputy director of NTUC's youth development unit and the executive secretary of the Union of Security Employees.
  • Desmond Lee, 35-year-old legal and regulations department of Temasek Holdings.
  • Edwin Tong, 42-year-old lawyer
  • Foo Mee Har, 45-year-old Standard Chartered Bank banker
  • Gan Thiam Poh, 48-year-old DBS banker
  • Heng Swee Keat, 50-year-old former managing director of Monetary Authority of Singapore.
  • Intan Azura Mokhtar, 35-year-old NIE trainer
  • Janil Puthucheary, 39-year-old surgeon from KK Women's and Children's Hospital
  • Lawrence Wong, 39-year-old from Energy Market Authority and former civil servant
  • Low Yen Ling, 37-year-old former EDB director
  • Ong Teng Koon, 34-year-old commodities trader
  • Ong Ye Kung, 42-year-old assistant secretary-general from NTUC.
  • Patrick Tay, 40-year-old trade unionist.
  • Sim Ann, 36-year-old high-flying civil servant
  • Tan Chuan-Jin, 42-year-old former SAF.
  • Tin Pei Ling, 27-year-old in Ernst & Young.
  • Vikram Nair, 33-year-old lawyer
  • Zainal Sapari, 46-year-old educator, former Pasir Ris area schools' superintendent

Workers' Party[]

  • Angela Oon, 32-year-old researcher
  • Chen Show Mao, 50-year-old Taiwan-born corporate lawyer and former infantry commander
  • Chong Cham Weng, 51-year-old managing director
  • Frieda Chan, 35-year-old senior medical social worker
  • Gerald Giam, 33-year-old Senior IT consultant
  • Koh Choong Yong, 38-year-old technology consultant from Ruckus Wireless Singapore
  • L. Somasundram, 47-year-old lecturer from Temasek Polytechnic
  • Lee Li Lian, 32-year-old senior sales trainer from Great Eastern Life Assurance
  • Mohamed Fazli Talip, 29-year-old finance adviser
  • Muhamad Faisal Manap, 35-year-old freelance counselor
  • Png Eng Huat, 49-year-old company director
  • Pritam Singh, 34-year-old law postgraduate and former SAF officer
  • Sajeev Kunju Raman Kamalasanan, 41-year-old businessman
  • Toh Hong Boon, 30-year-old senior research officer
  • Yam Poh Nan, 49-year-old business consultant
  • Yee Jenn Jong, 46-year-old entrepreneur

Retiring politicians[]

All politicians who were retiring or stepping down from their seats were from the PAP.

  • Abdullah Tarmugi, Speaker of the Parliament, MP for East Coast GRC.[20]
  • Ahmad Magad, MP for Pasir Ris-Punggol GRC.[20]
  • Ang Mong Seng, MP for Hong Kah GRC.[20]
  • Chan Soo Sen, MP for Joo Chiat SMC.[21]
  • Ho Peng Kee, MP for Nee Soon East SMC.[22]
  • Koo Tsai Kee, MP for Tanjong Pagar GRC.[23]
  • Lee Boon Yang, MP for Jalan Besar GRC.[24]
  • Lim Boon Heng, MP for Jurong GRC.[24]
  • Madeleine Ho, MP for West Coast GRC.[25]
  • Matthias Yao, MP for MacPherson SMC.[25]
  • Ong Ah Heng, MP for Nee Soon Central SMC.[26]
  • Ong Kian Min, MP for Tampines GRC.[26]
  • Ong Seh Hong, MP for Marine Parade GRC.[26]
  • S Jayakumar, MP for East Coast GRC.[27]
  • Sin Boon Ann, MP for Tampines GRC.[27]
  • Wee Siew Kim, MP for Ang Mo Kio GRC.[28]
  • Yeo Cheow Tong, MP for Hong Kah GRC.[29]
  • Yu-Foo Yee Shoon, MP for Holland-Bukit Timah GRC.[29]

Staking claims[]

Soon after the announcement of the new electoral boundaries, various opposition parties indicated their intent to contest, subject to negotiations between political parties to avoid three-cornered fights. The parties declaring an interest to contest each constituency and their nomination status is reflected below.

File:Map of contested electoral divisions in the Singaporean general election 2011.svg

Nominations by various opposition parties as on nomination day on 27 April 2011. Banded shading indicates constituencies with three-party contests. There was no contest in Tanjong Pagar after the opposition team intending to submit a nomination were disqualified.

General election campaign[]

Televised forum[]

In the first pre-election forum of this nature in Singapore since the 1988 General Election, Channel NewsAsia invited the main parties to record an hour-long programme. The programme, in English entitled, “A political forum on Singapore’s future” brought together the ruling People’s Action Party (PAP) and four opposition parties to discuss long and short-term challenges for the country. [30] The forum included:

Social media[]

The Worker's Party utilised social media to circumvent obstacles placed in front of them by Singapore's government-controlled media.[31]

Political rallies[]

The Singapore Police Force announced 41 political rally sites on 27 April which could be booked by political parties on a first-come-first-served basis. Rallies were allowed to be conducted from 28 April to 5 May, from 7am to 10pm. The 41st site is for lunch time rallies at Boat Quay near to the UOB Plaza.[32] Template:Col-start Template:Col-3 National Solidarity Party

Date Location Constituency
28 April Open field at Geylang East Central Marine Parade GRC
29 April Delta Hockey Pitch Radin Mas SMC
30 April Open field near Jalan Tenteram Whampoa SMC
1 May Jurong West Stadium Pioneer SMC
2 May Open field near Mountbatten Community Centre Mountbatten SMC
3 May Choa Chu Kang Stadium Choa Chu Kang GRC
4 May Tampines Stadium Tampines GRC
5 May Open field near Chinese Garden Jurong GRC

People’s Action Party

Date Location Constituency
28 April Open field near Buangkok MRT station Pasir Ris-Punggol GRC
29 April Yio Chu Kang Stadium Ang Mo Kio GRC
29 April Open field near Kallang Avenue Moulmein-Kallang GRC
29 April Jurong West Stadium Pioneer SMC
30 April Serangoon Stadium Aljunied GRC
30 April Open field at Geylang East Central Marine Parade GRC
30 April Choa Chu Kang Stadium Choa Chu Kang GRC
30 April Open field near Hougang MRT station Hougang SMC
1 May Bedok Stadium East Coast GRC
2 May Open field near Segar Road Bukit Panjang SMC
2 May Jurong East Stadium Yuhua SMC
2 May Open field near Jurong West Avenue 3 Hong Kah North SMC
3 May Boat Quay next to UOB Plaza (lunch time) Ang Mo Kio GRC
3 May Woodlands Stadium Sembawang GRC
4 May Open field near Mountbatten Community Centre Mountbatten SMC
4 May Open field in Sengkang East Punggol East SMC
4 May Yishun Stadium Nee Soon GRC
4 May Open field near Clementi Avenue 4 Holland-Bukit Timah GRC
4 May Delta Hockey Pitch Radin Mas SMC
5 May Open field near Ubi Road 3 Aljunied GRC
5 May Toa Payoh Stadium Bishan-Toa Payoh GRC
5 May Tampines Stadium Tampines GRC
5 May Open field near Potong Pasir Avenue 1 Potong Pasir SMC
5 May Open field near Jalan Tenteram Whampoa SMC
5 May Open field near Segar Road Bukit Panjang SMC
5 May Bedok Stadium East Coast GRC
5 May Open field near Pasir Ris Park Pasir Ris-Punggol GRC

Template:Col-3 Reform Party

Date Location Constituency
28 April Clementi Stadium West Coast GRC
30 April Clementi Stadium West Coast GRC
1 May Yio Chu Kang Stadium Ang Mo Kio GRC
2 May Open field near West Coast Park West Coast GRC
4 May Clementi Stadium West Coast GRC
5 May Clementi Stadium West Coast GRC
5 May Yio Chu Kang Stadium (subsequently cancelled)[33] Ang Mo Kio GRC

Singapore Democratic Alliance

Date Location Constituency
29 April Open field in Sengkang East Punggol East SMC
1 May Open field near Pasir Ris Park Pasir Ris-Punggol GRC
4 May Open field near Buangkok MRT station Pasir Ris-Punggol GRC

Singapore Democratic Party

Date Location Constituency
28 April Open field near Commonwealth Avenue Holland-Bukit Timah GRC
29 April Jurong East Stadium Yuhua SMC
30 April Woodlands Stadium Sembawang GRC
1 May Open field near Clementi Avenue 4 Holland-Bukit Timah GRC
2 May Open field near Commonwealth Avenue Holland-Bukit Timah GRC
3 May Open field near Segar Road Bukit Panjang SMC
4 May Woodlands Stadium Sembawang GRC
5 May Boat Quay next to UOB Plaza (lunch time) Holland-Bukit Timah GRC
5 May Woodlands Stadium Sembawang GRC

Singapore People’s Party

Date Location Constituency
29 April Open field near Jurong West Avenue 3 Hong Kah North SMC
30 April Open field near Potong Pasir Avenue 1 Potong Pasir SMC
2 May Bishan Stadium Bishan-Toa Payoh GRC
4 May Open field near Potong Pasir Avenue 1 Potong Pasir SMC
5 May Bishan Stadium Bishan-Toa Payoh GRC

Workers’ Party

Date Location Constituency
28 April Open field near Hougang MRT station Hougang SMC
29 April Serangoon Stadium Aljunied GRC
30 April Bedok Stadium East Coast GRC
1 May Yishun Stadium Nee Soon GRC
2 May Open field near Kallang Avenue Moulmein-Kallang GRC
3 May Open field in Sengkang East Punggol East SMC
4 May Open field near Ubi Road 3 Aljunied GRC
5 May Serangoon Stadium Aljunied GRC

Template:Col-3

File:Singapore GE2011 NSP Rally 01.jpg

The National Solidarity Party's rally on 4 May at the Tampines Stadium

File:Singapore GE2011 SDP Rally 01.jpg

Merchandise sold during the political rally by the Singapore Democratic Party in Bukit Panjang on 3 May

|}

Controversies[]

Online video[]

During the 2011 elections campaigning, Vivian Balakrishnan said the SDP was "suppressing a certain YouTube video, which raises some very awkward questions about the agenda and motivations of the SDP and its candidates".[34] He issued the following statement:

I am not sure what [the SDP] strategy is...I can’t help feeling that part of the reason for their reticence is they have elements of their agenda they are not prepared to disclose and subject to scrutiny. Eventually, they will have to come out of the closet. (The Straits Times, 20 April 2011)

Vincent Wijeysingha rejected his comments stating, "We've been a very open party and we're very clear."[35]

This incident was cited in an article published in The Economist criticising the ruling party's election strategy[36] The New Paper released a story next day, with the headline: Is Singapore ready for a GAY MP?"[37] Kenneth Jeyaretnam of the Reform Party called Balakrishnan's campaign a "low attack." [34]

Balakrishnan received widespread controversy and criticism online for his remark,.[38] On 28 April, he told the press: "there is "no need" to further discuss [the] video". He said that his question was a "legitimate".[39]

Cooling-off day controversies[]

Nicole Seah, a team member contesting Marine Parade GRC under the NSP team, filed a complaint to the Elections Department on 6 May stating PAP-team member Tin Pei Ling had violated the state-mandated cooling-off period 24 hours before polls by posting a Facebook comment "in response to a video [in the state press] that showed Seah crying after being told about a Macpherson female resident who could not get a refund of her son's $80 tuition fees".[40]

The NSP team was advised by the Elections Department to lodge a police report before the Elections Department could investigate.[41]

The day after the election, Seah told reporters that her party had not received any response after making the complaint, and said no decision had been taken on whether or not to pursue the issue. She added that the NSP knew "it is an uphill battle to get any results out of this. I would rather devote my time and resources to the residents".[42]

A similar complaint was lodged against Seah alleging that material had been published on her Facebook page during Cooling-Off Day. On 10 August, the Singapore Police Force announced that it had concluded its investigations into the two incidents, and that aside from a "stern warning" to Tin's friend, neither action was taken against either Tin or Seah.[43]

Separately, the NSP also complained that the PAP had been distributing election material to residents in Tampines GRC in violation of cooling-off regulations.[41]

Election results[]

After polls closed at 8pm, vote counting began. Results were announced by Yam Ah Mee, chief executive director of the People's Association, who acted as the Returning Officer for the election.[44] The first result was declared at 11.58pm on 7 May 2011, where PAP candidate Lim Biow Chuan won the Mountbatten Single Member Constituency with a majority of 3,529.

At 1.31 am on 8 May 2011, the PAP team for Ang Mo Kio Group Representation Constituency was declared to have won the division, putting the PAP's seat tally at 44 seats, and thus formed the government. The final result to be declared was for the Potong Pasir Single Member Constituency at 2.51am on 8 May, where the PAP gained the seat from the SPP on a razor-thin margin of 114 votes.

The political status quo was kept as the People's Action Party won a 13th consecutive term in office since 1959. However, the PAP saw its vote majorities reduced island-wide for a second election in a row. The PAP won 81 seats out of 87 despite losing Aljunied Group Representation Constituency to the WP, which also won in Hougang Single Member Constituency. None of the other five opposition parties won contests, including the SPP which lost Potong Pasir that it held prior to the election. WP marked the first opposition GRC victory since GRCs were introduced in 1988,[45] which resulted in the electoral defeat of Foreign Minister George Yeo[46][47] and a second Cabinet minister Lim Hwee Hua; both ministers were the first two highest-ranking PAP cabinet ministers to be unseated in the election in post-independence Singapore, with the last time being 1963 (minister Kenneth Michael Byrne lost his seat of Crawford)[48] The PAP also set its lowest national vote share since independence (beating 1991's share of 61.0%), which was just little over 60 per cent, a vote swing of almost negative 7 per cent from 2006.[8]

Excluding electorates from Tanjong Pagar Group Representation Constituency, voter turnout for the election was 93.18%, with 2,060,373 votes cast.[49]

Results summary[]

Template:Pie chart Template:Pie chart

File:Map of the results of the Singaporean general election 2011.svg

Results as announced on polling day on 7 May 2011.

Template:Singapore general election, 2011

Full results[]

Results of 2011 Singapore general election[50]
Division Seats Voters Party Candidate(s) Votes Votes %
Aljunied GRC 5 143,148 Template:SG/PAP George Yeo
Lim Hwee Hua
Zainul Abidin bin Mohamed Rasheed
Cynthia Phua
Ong Ye Kung
59,829 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/WP Low Thia Khiang
Sylvia Lim
Chen Show Mao
Pritam Singh
Muhamad Faisal bin Abdul Manap
72,289 Template:Composition bar
Ang Mo Kio GRC 6 179,071 Template:SG/PAP Lee Hsien Loong
Yeo Guat Kwang
Inderjit Singh
Seng Han Thong
Ang Hin Kee
Intan Azura Mokhtar
112,677 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/RP Alex Tan Zhixiang
Arthero Lim Tung Hee
Vignes Ramachandran
Lim Zi Rui
Mansor Rahman
Osman Sulaiman
49,851 Template:Composition bar
Bishan-Toa Payoh GRC 5 122,492 Template:SG/PAP Wong Kan Seng
Ng Eng Hen
Josephine Teo Li Min
Hri Kumar
Zainudin Nordin
62,385 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/SPP Chiam See Tong
Benjamin Pwee
Wilfred Leung
Jimmy Lee
Mohamad Hamim Aliyas
47,205 Template:Composition bar
Chua Chu Kang GRC 5 158,648 Template:SG/NSP Teo Kway Huang Sebastian
Tan Lay Thiam Tony
Poa Koon Koon Hazel
Nor Lella Mardiiiah Mohamed
Jeisilan Sivalingam
56,885 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/PAP Gan Kim Yong
Alvin Yeo
Zaqy Mohamad
Alex Yam
Low Yen Ling
89,710 Template:Composition bar
East Coast GRC 5 120,324 Template:SG/PAP Lim Swee Say
Maliki Osman
Lee Yi Shyan
Jessica Tan
Raymond Lim
59,992 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/WP Eric Tan Heng Chong
Png Eng Huat
Glenda Han
Gerald Giam
Mohamed Fazli Bin Talip
49,429 Template:Composition bar
Holland-Bukit Timah GRC 4 91,607 Template:SG/PAP Vivian Balakrishnan
Christopher de Souza
Liang Eng Hwa
Sim Ann
48,773 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/SDP Tan Jee Say
Ang Yong Guan
Vincent Wijeysingha
Michelle Lee
32,406 Template:Composition bar
Jurong GRC 5 125,276 Template:SG/NSP Neo Ting Wei Christopher
Abdul Rasheed
Ong Beng Soon Elvin
Ong Hock Siong
Noraini Yunus
37,786 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/PAP Tharman Shanmugaratnam
Halimah Bte Yacob
Ang Wei Neng
Desmond Lee Ti-Seng (Li Zhisheng)
David Ong
76,595 Template:Composition bar
Marine Parade GRC 5 154,451 Template:SG/NSP Cheo Chai Chen
Ivan Yeo Tiong Boon
Abdul Salim Harun
Spencer Ng Chung Hon
Seah Xue Ling, Nicole Rebecca
59,926 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/PAP Goh Chok Tong
Tan Chuan Jin
Fatimah Lateef
Seah Kian Peng
Tin Pei Ling
78,286 Template:Composition bar
Moulmein-Kallang GRC 4 87,595 Template:SG/PAP Lui Tuck Yew
Yaacob Ibrahim
Denise Phua Lay Peng
Edwin Tong
44,886 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/WP Mohd Rahizan
Toh Hong Boon
L Somasundram
Frieda Chan
31,773 Template:Composition bar
Nee Soon GRC 5 148,290 Template:SG/PAP K. Shanmugam
Muhammad Faishal Ibrahim
Lee Bee Wah
Lim Wee Kiak
Patrick Tay Teck Guan
80,740 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/WP John Yam Poh Nam
Angela Faye Oon
Sajeev K. R. Kamalasanan
Chong Cham Weng, Winston
Poh Lee Guan
57,523 Template:Composition bar
Pasir Ris-Punggol GRC 6 168,971 Template:SG/PAP Teo Chee Hean
Teo Ser Luck
Penny Low
Janil Puthucheary
Gan Thiam Poh
Zainal Bin Sapari
100,493 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/SDA Harminder Pal Singh
Sidney Soon
Jeffrey Lim
Noraine Anabi
Tony Tan
Mohammad Shafni Ahmad
54,601 Template:Composition bar
Sembawang GRC 5 142,459 Template:SG/PAP Khaw Boon Wan
Ellen Lee
Hawazi Daipi
Ong Teng Koon
Vikram Nair
84,252 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/SDP James Gomez
John Tan
Jarrod Luo Jie
Mohd Isa Abdul Aziz
Sadasivam Veriyah
47,605 Template:Composition bar
Tampines GRC 5 137,532 Template:SG/NSP Goh Meng Seng
Reno Fong Chin Leong
Syafarin Sarif
Raymond Lim Peng Ann
Gilbert Goh Keow Wah
54,381 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/PAP Mah Bow Tan
Ng Phek Hoong Irene
Masagos Zulkifli Bin Masagos Mohamad
Baey Yam Keng
Heng Swee Keat
72,728 Template:Composition bar
Tanjong Pagar GRC 5 139,771 Template:SG/PAP Lee Kuan Yew
Lily Neo
Indranee Thurai Rajah
Chan Chun Sing
Chia Shi-Lu
Walkover
West Coast GRC 5 121,045 Template:SG/PAP Lim Hng Kiang
Fong Jen Arthur
S Iswaran
Foo Mee Har
Lawrence Wong Shyun Tsai
72,563 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/RP Kenneth Jeyaretnam
Frankie Low
Andy Zhu
Kumar Appavoo
Haren Hu
36,443 Template:Composition bar
Bukit Panjang SMC 1 33,053 Template:SG/PAP Teo Ho Pin 20,375 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/SDP Alec Tok 10,372 Template:Composition bar
Hong Kah North SMC 1 27,701 Template:SG/PAP Amy Khor Lean Suan 18,156 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/SPP Sin Kek Tong 7,556 Template:Composition bar
Hougang SMC 1 24,560 Template:SG/PAP Choo Pey Ching Desmond 8065 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/WP Yaw Shin Leong 14,850 Template:Composition bar
Joo Chiat SMC 1 22,069 Template:SG/PAP Chong You Fook Charles 9,666 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/WP Yee Jenn Jong 9,278 Template:Composition bar
Mountbatten SMC 1 23,731 Template:SG/NSP Jeannette Chong-Aruldoss 8,461 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/PAP Lim Biow Chuan 11,985 Template:Composition bar
Pioneer SMC 1 25,745 Template:SG/NSP Steve Chia Kiah Hong 9,437 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/PAP Cedric Foo 14,593 Template:Composition bar
Potong Pasir SMC 1 17,327 Template:SG/PAP Sitoh Yih Pin 7,992 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/SPP Lina Chiam 7,878 Template:Composition bar
Punggol East SMC 1 33,281 Template:SG/PAP Michael Palmer 16,994 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/SDA Desmond Lim (Loses deposit) 1,387 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/WP Lee Li Lian 12,777 Template:Composition bar
Radin Mas SMC 1 31,014 Template:SG/NSP Yip Yew Weng 9,123 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/PAP Sam Tan Chin Siong 18,609 Template:Composition bar
Sengkang West SMC 1 26,882 Template:SG/PAP Lam Pin Min 14,689 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/WP Koh Choong Yong 10,591 Template:Composition bar
Whampoa SMC 1 21,622 Template:SG/PAP Heng Chee How 13,028 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/NSP Ken Sun 6,680 Template:Composition bar
Yuhua SMC 1 23,195 Template:SG/PAP Grace Fu 14,093 Template:Composition bar
Template:SG/SDP Teo Soh Lung 6,986 Template:Composition bar

Analysis[]

Top 10 best PAP performers

  • Constituencies with no comparison to 2006 were either due to them being new constituencies or the constituencies experiencing walkovers in the last election.
# Constituency Template:SG/PAP/logo PAP Opposition
Votes % Swing Votes % Swing
1 Hong Kah North SMC 18,156 70.61 Template:N/a Template:SPP/logo 7,556 29.39 Template:N/a
2 Ang Mo Kio GRC 112,677 69.33 Template:Increase 3.19 Template:SG RP/logo 49,851 30.67 Template:Decrease 3.19
3 Radin Mas SMC 18,609 67.10 Template:N/a Template:SG/NSP/logo 9,123 32.90 Template:N/a
4 Jurong GRC 76,595 66.96 Template:N/a Template:SG/NSP/logo 37,786 33.04 Template:N/a
5 Yuhua SMC 14,093 66.86 Template:N/a Template:SDP/logo 6,986 33.14 Template:N/a
6 West Coast GRC 72,563 66.57 Template:N/a Template:SG RP/logo 36,443 33.43 Template:N/a
7 Bukit Panjang SMC 20,375 66.27 Template:Decrease 10.91 Template:SDP/logo 10,372 33.73 Template:Increase 10.91
8 Whampoa SMC 13,028 66.10 Template:N/a Template:SG/NSP/logo 6,683 33.90 Template:N/a
9 Pasir Ris-Punggol GRC 100,493 64.79 Template:Decrease 3.91 Template:SDA/logo 54,601 35.21 Template:Increase 3.91
10 Sembawang GRC 84,252 63.9 Template:Decrease 12.8 Template:SDP/logo 47,605 36.1 Template:Increase 12.8

Top 16 best opposition performers

  • Constituencies with no comparison to 2006 were either due to them being new constituencies or the constituencies experiencing walkovers in the last election.
  • Punggol East SMC is excluded from the table as there were two opposition parties which competed against the incumbent. If the WP's 12,765 votes (41.02%) and the SDA's 1,386 votes (4.45%) were summed up, the opposition won 14,151 votes (45.47%), which would place it fifth in the table below.
# Constituency Opposition Template:SG/PAP/logo PAP
Votes % Swing Votes % Swing
1 Hougang SMC Template:SG/WP/logo 14,850 64.8 Template:Increase 2.1 8,065 35.2 Template:Decrease 2.1
2 Aljunied GRC Template:SG/WP/logo 72,289 54.72 Template:Increase 10.81 59,829 45.28 Template:Decrease 10.81
3 Potong Pasir SMC Template:SPP/logo 7,878 49.64 Template:Decrease 6.18 7,992 50.36 Template:Increase 6.18
4 Joo Chiat SMC Template:SG/WP/logo 9,278 48.98 Template:Increase 13.99 9,666 51.02 Template:Decrease 13.99
5 East Coast GRC Template:SG/WP/logo 49,429 45.17 Template:Increase 9.03 59,992 54.83 Template:Decrease 9.03
6 Marine Parade GRC Template:SG/NSP/logo 59,926 43.36 Template:N/a 78,286 56.64 Template:N/a
7 Bishan-Toa Payoh GRC Template:SPP/logo 47,205 43.07 Template:N/a 62,385 56.93 Template:N/a
8 Tampines GRC Template:SG/NSP/logo 54,381 42.78 Template:Increase 11.29 72,728 57.22 Template:Decrease 11.29
9 Sengkang West SMC Template:SG/WP/logo 10,591 41.89 Template:N/a 14,689 58.11 Template:N/a
10 Nee Soon GRC Template:SG/WP/logo 57,523 41.60 Template:N/a 80,740 58.40 Template:N/a
11 Moulmein-Kallang GRC Template:SG/WP/logo 31,773 41.45 Template:N/a 44,886 58.55 Template:N/a
12 Mountbatten SMC Template:SG/NSP/logo 8,461 41.38 Template:N/a 11,985 58.62 Template:N/a
13 Punggol East SMC Template:SG/WP/logo 12,777 41.01 rowspan=2 Template:N/a 16,994 54.54 rowspan=2 Template:N/a
Template:SG/SDA/logo 1,387 4.45
14 Holland-Bukit Timah GRC Template:SG/SDP/logo 32,406 39.92 Template:N/a 48,773 60.08 Template:N/a
15 Pioneer SMC Template:SG/NSP/logo 9,437 39.27 Template:N/a 14,593 60.73 Template:N/a
16 Chua Chu Kang GRC Template:SG/NSP/logo 56,885 38.80 Template:N/a 89,710 61.20 Template:N/a

Vote Swings

  • Only the following constituencies may be compared with 2006 results as they existed in both elections, although most had changes in their electoral boundaries.
# Constituency Template:SG/PAP/logo PAP Opposition
Votes % Swing Votes % Swing
1 Joo Chiat SMC 9,278 48.98 Template:Increase 13.99 Template:SG/WP/logo 9,666 51.02 Template:Decrease 13.99
2 Sembawang GRC 84,252 63.9 Template:Decrease 12.8 Template:SDP/logo 47,605 36.1 Template:Increase 12.8
3 Tampines GRC 72,728 57.22 Template:Decrease 11.29 Template:SG/NSP/logo 54,381 42.78 Template:Increase 11.29
4 Bukit Panjang SMC 20,375 66.27 Template:Decrease 10.91 Template:SDP/logo 10,372 33.73 Template:Increase 10.91
5 Aljunied GRC 59,829 45.28 Template:Decrease 10.81 Template:SG/WP/logo 72,289 54.72 Template:Increase 10.81
6 East Coast GRC 59,992 54.83 Template:Decrease 9.03 Template:SG/WP/logo 49,429 45.17 Template:Increase 9.03
7 Potong Pasir SMC 7,992 50.36 Template:Increase 6.18 Template:SPP/logo 7,878 49.64 Template:Decrease 6.18
8 Pasir Ris-Punggol GRC 100,493 64.79 Template:Decrease 3.91 Template:SDA/logo 54,601 35.21 Template:Increase 3.91
9 Ang Mo Kio GRC 112,677 69.33 Template:Increase 3.19 Template:SG RP/logo 49,851 30.67 Template:Decrease 3.19
10 Hougang SMC 8,065 35.2 Template:Decrease 2.1 Template:SG/WP/logo 14,850 64.8 Template:Increase 2.1

Interpretive maps

File:Map of the PAP's vote share in the Singaporean general election 2011.svg

Vote share won by the ruling People's Action Party by constituency. There was no contest in Tanjong Pagar Group Representation Constituency as there was a walkover.

Post-election events[]

Ruling party's immediate reactions[]

The People's Action Party's secretary-general, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, described the results as delivering his party a "clear mandate to form the next government".[51] In his post-election press conference, Lee said the polls had "heightened (voters') political consciousness and awareness", and admitted that "many of them desire to see more opposition voices in Parliament to check the PAP government".[52] He described the PAP's loss of Aljunied GRC, which resulted in George Yeo being voted out of Parliament and losing his position as foreign minister, as a "heavy loss to my Cabinet and my team of MPs", but said that the party would "accept and respect the voters' decision".[53] The country's Senior Minister, Goh Chok Tong, also admitted that "there is a sea change in the political landscape" after his team won Marine Parade Group Representation Constituency with just 56.6 percent of the vote.[54]

Opposition parties' immediate reactions[]

The Workers Party's secretary-general Low Thia Khiang said his team's win in Aljunied meant that voters had "accepted the WP as a rational, responsible and respected party".[55] In his victory speech, Low declared his win as a "political landmark in modern Singapore".[56][57] He added that it meant the electorate wanted to tell the PAP to be "a more responsive, inclusive, transparent and accountable government”.[6]

In a statement on its website, the Singapore Democratic Party thanked its supporters for their support, saying that it was for them that the party "(continues) to labour on in this undemocratic system with all the odds stacked against us."[58] Its assistant treasurer Vincent Wijeysingha, who stood in Holland-Bukit Timah Group Representation Constituency, said that the party's positive vote swing in its contested wards of almost 13 percent from the last elections was an "indicator that things are beginning to move up for our party."[59] In a second statement on its website, the SDP described its results as "disappointing", but promised to "build on the foundation that we have laid" for the next elections.[60] The party's secretary-general Chee Soon Juan, barred from standing in the election, went on to write an opinion piece for the Guardian, in which he said it "would have been a miracle" had the SDP won any seats, and accused the media in Singapore of suppressing news of the SDP's campaigning.[61]

Other than the PAP and WP, the only other opposition seat pre-election had been held by the Singapore People's Party, which lost it in the polls by just 114 votes. Chiam See Tong, the SPP's secretary-general, said his party would fight to win back Potong Pasir Single Member Constituency, and said that despite being defeated in Bishan-Toa Payoh Group Representation Constituency, he would continue in politics, health permitting.[62] He also questioned the margin of votes in Potong Pasir, contested by his wife, saying there was "funny business" happening. A petition calling for a by-election in the constituency was started by SPP supporters and Potong Pasir residents.[63]

The National Solidarity Party, which contested the most seats of all opposition parties, admitted it may have taken on too much, with its leader Goh Meng Seng telling reporters that he would be "personally responsible" for the party's failure to win a single seat.[59] Its star candidate, Nicole Seah, said Singaporeans now had to unite as a country.[64] Seah, who contested in Marine Parade, also said there was "so much that needs to be done", and that she would continue her work in the area despite her team's defeat.[65]

The leader of the newest opposition party contesting the elections, the Reform Party's Kenneth Jeyaretnam, described his party as having "learnt a lot" and said they had "done very well", as the first new party in over 20 years. He added that the party was "very happy" at its result in West Coast Group Representation Constituency,[59] and that its second team had done "creditably" in Ang Mo Kio Group Representation Constituency. Jeyaretnam also said the team being able to win the votes it did despite being a new party meant that its "core values resonate with the voters".[66]

The worst-performing party at the polls was the Singapore Democratic Alliance, whose secretary-general Desmond Lim polled under 5 percent of votes in Punggol East Single Member Constituency—the only three-way contest of the election—and lost a S$16,000 election deposit. He said voters had voted based on brand name, as the other opposition candidate in the ward was from the WP. The SDA also contested Pasir Ris-Punggol Group Representation Constituency, and Lim said the party was "very happy" at its positive vote swing from 2006 of over 4 percent. However, the SDA's anchorman in the constituency Harminder Pal Singh described the loss as a "time for painful reflection" and said the party would work harder to win more votes.[67]

Foreign reactions[]

At an ASEAN heads-of-state meeting in Jakarta, Indonesia, leaders of ASEAN nations reportedly told S Jayakumar, Singapore's representative at the event, that they were "saddened, disappointed and surprised" at the news that foreign minister Yeo had been defeated, according to the state-run Straits Times,[68] while at the same meeting the Prime Minister of Malaysia, Najib Tun Razak, said the PAP's win would mean a continuity in understanding between the Malaysian and Singaporean governments on bilateral issues.[69] The BBC described it as a landmark result.[70]

Non-Constituency Member of Parliament offers[]

Three Non-Constituency Members of Parliament (NCMP) seats were offered after the election to the top three losing opposition candidates. The Singapore People's Party accepted the seat for Lina Chiam, ensuring that the Chiam family retained representation in Parliament. While Chiam See Tong has said he is opposed to the scheme, the SPP reasoned that it was "critical" to ensure an "alternative voice in Parliament", to allow the party to "remain engaged in national issues", and to be publicly visible until the next election due by 2016. Mrs Chiam also pointed out that she was "influenced by the wishes of Potong Pasir residents" and she accepted the post as her losing margin was too small.[71]

The Workers' Party was offered the final two NCMP seats for having the second and third best performing losing candidates, which it accepted despite Mr Low also disputing the scheme. Yee Jenn Jong was thus appointed for his performance in Joo Chiat SMC, but as it had to choose one member from the East Coast GRC team, the younger Gerald Giam was chosen over team leader and party treasurer Eric Tan as part of its leadership renewal process. Eric Tan resigned from the party, citing his disagreement with the appointment.[72]

On 16 May 2011, the three proposed NCMPs were formally appointed.[73]

Legacy[]

Use of social media[]

The election saw a heavier use of social and online media compared to 2006 Singapore general election, especially to evade censorship in Singapore. It is widely perceived by the populace that the major state-run newspapers and broadcasters "align[ed] itself with the party's ideals and decisions" and that the electoral system was tilted against the Opposition.[36] It had been difficult to create alternative media until the rise of sites such as The Online Citizen and such internet tools such as Facebook, Twitter and blogs, which saw increased significance in the 2006 elections but became especially prominent in the 2011 elections. [74] According to The Economist, the PAP's aggressive modernisation of Singapore created "one of the world's most wired societies," leading to new media that "transformed" the electoral scene in Singapore. Characterising the state-run mainstream press as "docile", the Economist also argued that this also forced significantly more news coverage of the Opposition than in previous elections, since the mainstream media feared their readership deserting them.[36] One blogger from CNN wrote, "Thanks to social media, it doesn’t matter that the country’s largely state-run media leans towards reporting the actions of the PAP, no one’s reading anyway.".[74] The Economist however was more cynical in its analysis of the election: "in Singapore, winning 7% of parliamentary seats is tantamount to an opposition triumph".[36]

The first election in which a GRC was won by the Opposition[]

Traditionally regarded as a PAP "fortress", a GRC fell to the opposition for the first time in Singapore's political history. In previous elections, the Opposition had never won a GRC, which ostensibly ensure minority representation in parliament but also shut out smaller opposition parties with less resources. GRCs comprise over 86% of the seats, but the Opposition in previous elections would contest "less than half the seats". The election saw the most extensive use of co-ordination to avoid "three-cornered fights" and was also notable for seeing "two veteran MPs" making immense risks by choosing to contest in GRCs rather than their historical SMC strongholds.[36]

Signals to the ruling party[]

The election results were widely used in national and international discussions that the population was trying to send a message to a ruling party that "can also come across as smug, arrogant and high-handed" despite a win margin of over 20%, which usually counts as a landslide victory for most democratic nations but has been one of the narrowest margins since 1965.[36] The last election with a similarly narrow victory occurred in the 1963 Singapore general election, when the PAP's major opponent was the Barisan Sosialis—which in itself was a splinter group formed from the leftist wing of the PAP, where it had comprised 80% of the PAP grassroots membership, 35 out of the PAP's 51 branch committees and 19 of its 23 organising secretaries. According to the Economist, Singaporeans would prefer not to have an alternative government but a humbler one, as well as a "stronger opposition".

On 14 May, exactly a week after the election, Senior Minister Goh Chok Tong and Minister Mentor Lee Kuan Yew announced in a joint statement that they would be quitting the country's Cabinet, saying it was time for a "team of younger ministers" to "engage with this young generation in shaping the future of Singapore."[75] In a similar analysis by Bloomberg, the resignations and the ensuing cabinet reshuffle were the actions of a ruling party "seeking to overhaul its image with voters" whose "narrowest election victory on record signaled a shortfall in support among younger voters".[76] Analysts such as Citigroup economist Kit Wei Zheng believed that Minister Lee had contributed to the PAP's poor performance.[77]

Lee Kuan Yew was also quoted as saying that a younger generation was required to "carry Singapore forward in a more difficult and complex situation" while Lee Hsien Loong declared the party "would change the way it governs" and do some "soul-searching". A Singapore Management University professor said "[The PAP] will have to demonstrate that it remains a mass movement, and not [Lee Kuan Yew]’s alter ego," noting that younger Singaporeans do not see Lee Kuan Yew with the same godlike perception as older Singaporeans born before 1980.

Further retirements[]

Both losing ministers in Aljunied GRC, George Yeo and Minister in the Prime Minister's Office Lim Hwee Hua, announced their retirements from politics in separate news conferences given in the days after the election.[78][79] George Yeo, who remained popular online and continued to have "a flood of support" after the election and had been repeatedly urged to contest the next election, or even contest the 2011 Singaporean presidential election turned his supporters down, declaring, "I'm a free spirit, and I don't think I'm temperamentally suited for such a job." [80]

See also[]

Notes[]

  1. Template:Cite web
  2. Good to have strong contest: PM Lee. Straitstimes.com (28 April 2011). Retrieved 4 May 2011.
  3. Stakes and risk very high for opposition: WP chief. Straitstimes.com (28 April 2011). Retrieved 4 May 2011.
  4. GE 82 of 87 seats contested. Channel NewsAsia (27 April 2011). Retrieved 4 May 2011.
  5. Singapore Parliamentary General Election 1972 Template:Webarchive. Singapore-elections.com. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Template:Cite news
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  13. Template:Cite news By Farah Abdul Rahim.
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  17. Template:Cite news By S Ramesh.
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  32. Singapore Police Force – Media Information Centre Template:Webarchive. Spf.gov.sg. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
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References[]

External links[]

Template:Commons category

Other official information


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