Daoism does not articulate a single position on homosexuality as the term "Daoism" is used to describe a number of disparate religious traditions, from organised religious movements such as Quanzhen to Chinese folk religion and also a school of philosophy. The vast majority of adherents live in China and among the communities of the worldwide Chinese diaspora. Therefore, attitudes to homosexuality within Daoism often reflect the values and sexual norms of broader Chinese society (see Homosexuality in China).

YinYangSymbol.jpg

The Daoist tradition holds that males need the energies of females, and vice versa, in order to bring about balance, completion and transformation. These energies are thought to be best obtained through heterosexual relations. Daoism stresses the relationship between Yin and Yang, two opposing forces which maintain harmony through balance. Heterosexuality is seen as the physical and emotional embodiment of the harmonious balance between yin and yang.

However, the iconic symbol of Daoism, the taijitu (太极图), includes an element of Yin within Yang, and conversely of Yang within Yin. An individual thus already has both forces residing in him/herself even before being supplemented by those from another person. This is confirmed by medical science which has discovered that males produce female hormones like oestrogen and progesterone and females produce male ones such as testosterone and androstenedione. This concept lies in stark contrast with the Abrahamic religions in which a strict dichotomy between male and female is presumed and enforced.

A harmonious relationship between two people of the same sex is conceivable when there is a healthy and complementary balance of Yin and Yang elements both within and between the couple. This is certainly borne out in the real world where there are countless examples of harmonious, long-term gay relationships, just as there are volatile, transient heterosexual ones where presumably the elements of Yin and Yang are in discord and disarray.

Absence of condemnation[edit | edit source]

In Daoism, there is no particular condemnation of homosexuality. There is Daoist sect variation on the position regarding sexuality, but there is no position that could be called prudish. Homosexuality is certainly not regarded as a violation of divine law and is given no special status, be it positive or negative.

The condemnation of homosexuals present in other religions does not exist within Daoism. From the Daoist perspective, this condemnation is simply humans desiring to pursue the power of hatred, but being too guilty to acknowledge their desire for hatred. That guilt leads them to mask a human desire as an element of divine law. Such errors inhibit spiritual development.

The Dao De Jing states:

"The Dao does not take sides; it gives birth to both good and evil. The Master does not take sides; she welcomes both saints and sinners.

The Dao is like a bellows: it is empty yet infinitely capable. The more you use it, the more it produces; the more you talk of it, the less you understand.

Hold on to the center."

Guiding principles in sexuality[edit | edit source]

With regard to sexuality in general, the following principles should guide believers:

  • If a person is going to engage in sexual activity, he/she should be skilled at it and develop his/her sexual knowledge.
  • Restraint is recommended. It is rarely to a person’’s advantage to behave irresponsibly with qi, and sex depletes qi.
  • Saturation of the senses, typical of the sex act, should not be a focus of one’s life. A human being is worth more than a life lived for sensory saturation.
  • Sexual behavior should follow clearly established relationship boundaries, as established between partners.
  • Excessive sexual activity is usually an indicator of a poorly met basic need or underdevelopment of one's whole being. In other words, one's life is very limited if one is occupied with the spread or restriction of sexual behavior.

Human nature[edit | edit source]

It does not matter what Daoism or any other religion says about homosexual behavior. Religion does not stop humans from being human. People will always embody in their nature all the Yin-Yang aspects of humanity itself. Some people will embrace and accept homosexual activity as being natural. Others will find same-sex activity to be a threat to their ego, their sense of self and hence attack the behavior.

Some people will embrace a religion just to support their personal views and justify their feelings as right or wrong. Daoism steps away from this and reminds believers that they are human first. In being human, they will have a wide range of natural attributes to accept. Same-sex relationships are not a religious issue no matter what anyone says. Sexual preferences are an interpersonal topic. People are always people with both good and bad characteristics. One should learn to understand people, not religion, to help find peaceful answers to such questions.

Acceptance[edit | edit source]

Daoism is a practice of acceptance. People often make the mistake of thinking that since Daoism is a religion of acceptance, it must prescribe a universal standard of acceptance. Daoism cannot declare such a single answer since acceptance is a personal journey for each seeker to resolve on his/her own terms for finding wholeness.

Ego[edit | edit source]

Questions such as the acceptance of homosexuality are rooted in ego. Ego-based questions cannot be answered from a universal perspective despite ego’s insistence that it is universal in nature. So in the end, ego-based questions must be answered by each individual. Giving any single general answer will always create interpersonal conflict. To a Daoist, this problem is easily avoided by leaving the question unanswered from a larger perspective. To recognise this question is personal in scope for each individual to achieve balance in his/her life.

Daoist practice teaches a person to embrace ego lightly. So while Daoism does not answer the question directly, Daoist practice resolves the “homosexuality and religion” conflict.

Not every question has an answer[edit | edit source]

Daoism teaches that not every question should have an answer.

When this answer bothers a person, then it is a sign that his/her ego is working with issues which he/she personally finds it hard accept. Such feelings indicate a personal internal conflict deeper than the question itself. In fact, this is often why a person seeks a universal answer to the question - as a means to resolve a more profound personal conflict. One needs to move the issue outside the internal realm to find final absolution.

If Daoism is a practice of acceptance, this means that one’s sexual preferences are his/her own. It is perfectly fine to be who one is. No one has the right to tell one how one should be. So in this sense, Daoism ignores the question of homosexuality and leaves it to each person to decide for him/herself. Generally speaking, Daoism promotes healthy sexual relationships between partners since sex is part of human existence. Daoism also encourages a person to balance all his/her energies, including sexual energy. This leaves the issue very open to personal interpretation.

Historically, some Daoist practices frowned upon any sex at all since it reduced one’s vitality and distracted a person from the attainment of immortality. Other Daoist schools believe in ample sex to better exchange energy.

As a result, one will find all sorts of answers when reviewing older texts or asking Daoists from various schools of thought.

Some Daoist sects would be upset over same-sex activities. However, they would claim so not because it is sex between partners of the same gender, but rather because they consider sex in general as a distraction. Also, some Daoist sects consider such a balance to be counter to a traditional Yin-Yang (male/female) equilibrium.

So the actual answer again ends up depending on whom you ask. One answer would be, "You are who you are."

Homosexuality or any sexual orientation does not enter this statement at all and it is with a purpose. Because one is human, one defines oneself, not others. One does not need to beat oneself senseless over what one's desires are or one's nature. To do so limits one's nature and prevents one from becoming enlightened. One needs to learn to release desire and work towards acceptance of one's nature and the larger universe as a whole. So a person is what he/she is no matter what his/her sexual orientation. If any form of sexuality is due to others forcing one to be that way, then it is wrong, since it has been pressured upon oneself.

The important point is to know attachment and desire can prevent a person from discovering his/her full nature. No activity should distract one from exploring the potential of one's life. So sex is fine but not at the cost of the sex preventing a person from living wholly.

However, “right” and balanced actions do not always factor in real behavior. People do hurt each other for seemingly no good reason, so one should always tread carefully. Many people have experienced pain regarding this issue. As a result, people will lash out due to their inner conflict by trying to resolve their inner nature. This personal question always needs to be answered with kindness and never by self-judgment.

Homosexuality in Chinese history[edit | edit source]

Main article: Homosexuality in China

Regarding homosexuality within Chinese society and culture, Dr Ruan Fangfu, a physician and medical historian, recounts that stories regarding homosexuality can be found in "The Difficulties of Persuasion" which includes the story of king Ling and his love for Mi Zixia. Mi violated a law by taking the carriage of the king but was not punished for his act but rather praised for his "filial piety." Additionally, Mi saved half a peach for the king, for which the king acknowledged Mi 's love publically, which led to the expression "sharing the remaining peach" (yu tao). A second story involves the Emperor Han Aidi (6 BC to 1 AD) who loved Dong Xian and while the two were napping together Emperor Aidi cut his long sleeved gown so as not to disturb Xian's sleep. This gave rise to the usage of "the cut sleeve" (duan xiu). Both yu tao and duan xiu refer to homosexuality. Beyond these imperial stories, homosexuality was known and accepted during the Zhou and Han Dynasties, while also being seen in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. During the Zhou Dynasty one story involved Qi Jing Long, who received the glance of an officer because of his beauty. The king noted that if the officer had sex with the king, the death penalty would result. Yet, a premier, Master Yen, informed the king that"....it was not right to reject sexual desire, and not good to reject love"]. Also during this dynasty homosexual seduction was used as a weapon of the military or politicians, as it was believed "...a beautiful man can seduce an old man". Ruan goes on to note that during the Han Dynasty ".....ten of the eleven emperors had at least one homosexual lover or expressed some homosexual proclivities". More significantly Guodi, the founder of the Han Dynasty, had a homosexual relationship with Jiru; while Wudi, the Marital Emperor, had male partners including Han Yan, Wei Qing, and Huo Zhubin, the former a court musician and while the latter two were generals. Outside of these social elites it was during the Qing Dynasty that homosexuality was seen beyond this social group. During the Qing Dynasty the status of shialmg-gung / gu emerged. This status referred to males acting as females, or to the male homosexual's lover. An occupation was associated with the status of shialmg-gung, which flourished, was where males dressed as females and had male admirers. Another homosexual outlet during the Qing dynasty was providing younger male monks, for a significant fee, to powerful men.

Rabbit God[edit | edit source]

Main article: Rabbit God

Figurine of the Rabbit God.

Tu Er Shen (兔儿神 or simply, 兔神; The Leveret Spirit) is a Chinese Shenist or religious Daoist deity who manages the love and sex between male homosexuals - the patron god of gay men. His name is more often colloquially translated as the "Rabbit Deity" or "Rabbit God".

The deity apparently originates from a folk tale in 18th-century Fujian province. In the story, a soldier falls in love with a Qing Dynasty provincial official and spies on him to see him naked[1]. The official has the soldier beaten to death but the latter returns from the dead in the form of a young hare, or leveret, in the dream of a village elder. The leveret demands that local men build a temple to him, where they can burn incense in the interest of "affairs of men". The story ends:

"According to the customs of Fujian province, it is acceptable for a man and boy to form a bond (qi, 契) and to speak to each other as if to brothers. Hearing the villager relate the dream, the other villagers strove to contribute money to erect the temple. They kept silent about this secret vow, which they quickly and eagerly fulfilled. Others begged to know their reason for building the temple, but they did not find out. They all went there to pray."

Analysis of homosexuality using Daoist concepts[edit | edit source]

From this foundational discussion of Daoism and the related understanding of how sexuality and homosexuality have existed within Chinese culture and Daoism, a sufficient background has been laid to undertake an applicational analysis that will propose an expansion of the application of these concepts in a affirmational manner to homosexuality within Daoism. More specifically, the expansion of the understandings and applications of yin and yang, in an affirmative manner, will be argued.

When one looks holistically at the brief presentation of the Dao, Yin and Yang, sexuality and homosexuality, the expanding of Yin and Yang within the Dao and Daoism must be carefully constructed. Recognition must be given to the historical understandings of Yin and Yang within the framework on not only qi but also qi within not only individual men and women, but relationally between men and women. As such it must be acknowledged that the normative state of Yin and Yang and thus male and female is a complementary relationship, as highlighted by Drs Ruan and Zhang. Thus within the Daoist framework the nature of not only the "natural" relationship for humans, but also the "natural" sexual relationship for humans would be that of male and female who embrace and share the qi of life through their utilization of their dominant yang and yin, respectively. Yet, as noted by Zhang, each sex is imbued with both Yin and Yang. Thus the traditionally Daoist visual portrayal of yin and yang encapsulates this reality. This position is supported not by research regarding Chinese and Daoist relationships and sexuality, but rather is supported by research within the Western traditions, most notably the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS). This research found that about ten percent of males and eight percent of females identified themselves behaviorally, by desires, or through direct self-identification as homosexual. Thus nearly ninety percent of the population identify themselves as heterosexual. Consequently, the "normative" nature of complementary pairing would be that of male and female and might be visually conceptualised as occupying most of the symbol for Daoism, while conceptualising homosexuality within this symbol would occupy only a portion of the Daoist symbol. While acknowledging heterosexuality as normative, this dominant complimentary pairing of the opposite sexes being attracted to one another within heterosexuality is not scientifically substantiated. Essentially, the causes of sexual orientation have not been adequately researched in humans.

As one transitions and expands the discussion to include homosexuality, one first must confront the question raised by Yuan Mei and Chi Yun of the nature versus nurture positions. Yuan Mei, a famous Qing Dynasty author, relates a story of a man who appeared more feminine and did not get along with his wife. He was a man who was portrayed as wanting to be more of a man's concubine than a husband to his wife. This man was compared to a tree, that has many different branches, and therefore that this state of his being was something he was born with, just was a tree has its branches. In contrast Chi Yun in his writings noted that lusting after women was part of the "natural sexual drive," while desiring a catamite was not. He believed such lusting or desires for catamites came about from socialization or seduction processes. Thus Mei represents the "nature' position, while Yun represents the "nurture" position regarding the origins or causes of an individual's homosexuality.

To respond to the positions posed by Mei and Yun, we again must draw upon Western research since within the Chinese and/ or Daoist positions there has been no significant research endeavors to answer the nature/nurture question. While the question of nature or nurture has not been "answered" within the Western tradition, a few research studies provide some support for a nature position. The first of the studies involves the examination of identical twins. This study found that if one male was homosexual in identical twins that over one half, fifty-two percent, of the other twins were homosexual. A second study, conducted by the same researchers, found that the same finding was true for female homosexuals. Thus the correlational conclusion was that homosexuality is a heritable characteristic. In a more physiological study Simon Levy found that an anterior portion of the hypothalamus, which is agreed upon or understood to be related to sexual drive (towards the object of attraction/desire), is anatomically similar in size for heterosexual women as it is in homosexual men, while the same area of the hypothalamus is larger in heterosexual men, as it related to sexual orientation. While these findings do not prove that homosexuality, either as a sexual orientation or behavior,is biological and thus of "nature," such findings cannot be dismissed. Both the genetic connection supported by the twin studies, and the organic connection found in the Levy study support a "nature" position regarding homosexuality. Consequently, the nature position must be considered not only as part of Western culture but also Eastern and Asian culture and Daoism.

Thus it can be argued that homosexuality within the Eastern and Daoist framework, as supported by this nature position and because of the noted genetic and organic findings, is part of the Dao. It would not only be part of the universe, but would also share the common ancestry of Dao, as conceptualized during the Warring States period. Furthermore, if something has a natural genesis, not merely behavioral, as conceptualized by the alchemical Daoist, homosexuals and homosexual behavior would have to be seen within the context that "before we were born, we were all part of the Dao" [20] and thus a natural human condition, albeit for a smaller portion of humanity. The alchemical Doaists, through maintaining that "all the ingredients of immortality are found inside the body" can also be used as a supportive context for the innate naturalness of homosexuality because of these organic and genetic findings.

The support for a nature position also can draw upon the writings of Ge Hong and the construct that long life needs to be connected with "a correct mental attitude." Thus a homosexual male, at least as seen in Levy's study, who has a portion of the brain that is associated with sexual drive, and secondarily sexual orientation, that is correspondingly like that of a female heterosexual, would need to act in accordance with their physiology. In addition their correct mental attitude would be the enactment of the internal drives of that region of the brain. To act contrary to those drives would not be enacting the appropriate mental attitude. Additionally, drawing upon the action and karma school of Daoism, one must "accumulate good deeds" and such good acts are "harmonious with the Celestial Way." Conceptually, how could one's denial of the physiological nature of their sexual orientation, in this case homosexuality, and any actions resultant of that denial be consider "good deeds?" Such evidence of this denial is seen within the homosexual community by individuals who embrace heterosexual relationships for periods of their life and then either have extra, relational/marriage affairs or by "coming out" during their mid-life. The damage that is inflicted upon their partners cannot be considered a "good deed," nor is it "harmonious," not to mention the internal disharmony such actions cause. The eventual "coming out," at least from a Daoist perspective, could be conceived as a "response from the Dao," that will not allow the internal nature of the individual to live a disharmonious life, nor continue to undertake "bad" deeds. Thus if one is to live a life that promotes harmony, internally and externally, one must live a life that allows one's qi to be enhanced, through the refinements previously noted, and as such would need to minimize negative emotional states, such as frustration or sadness. Not being true to one's physiology, through internal or external denial, can promote such negative emotional states. Consequently, qi would not be enhanced and one's life and health would be impacted. Additionally, Peng zu's comment that if man does without a woman that his mind is restive, and if restive the man will have a fatigued spirit and shortened life, although specifically noting a heterosexual pairing, can be applied to homosexuals as well. If the homosexual does not enact that which their physiology is "calling forth," then their minds can also become restive, just as is proposed for heterosexuals. If restive they correspondingly have the potential to create a fatigued spirit and a shortened life. Therefore to maintain one's spirit (shen) the homosexual should embrace the seeking out of their desired partner, as any demand for living a non-sexual life, although an ideal (for heterosexuals), seems unlikely. Remember that Zi noted that not one in ten thousand might be able to embrace such a decision.

Beyond this purely genetic and organic orientation, this position also embraces the essential elements of yin and yang. Remember that within Chinese medicine both yin and yang are necessary and that men and women have both, even while one is dominant within each sex. Not only are they necessary as Chang commented, because of the hormonal dimensions of yin and yang, men and women can, and sometimes desire, to express the masculine and feminine dimension of either in their lives. Not only are there expressions of yin and yang in males and females, there remains that complementary dimensions, and resultant balances that exist between the sexes. So how does the physiology of yin and yang and any complementary nature of these "energies," apply to homosexuality. Before commenting on the any applicability to yin and yang, a brief examination of any complementary dimensions of homosexual relationships is warranted.

Expressions of masculinity and femininity have been researched in relationships, including homosexual relationships. For heterosexual couples the consistent findings, albeit with some younger generational changes, hold that specific household takes and gendered behaviors are undertaken and enacted by males or females in these relationships. Through limited research the same seems to holds true for homosexual relationships. Five research studies found that an enactment of predominantly either male or female instrumental or socio-emotional roles was undertaken by the respective partners in female and male homosexual relationships. In the homosexual relationships studied complementary roles were enacted in these relationships where one partner enacted male identified roles, while the other partner enacted female identified roles. Such role enactments can also extend into the realm of intimacy and sexual behavior. Within the female homosexual community this can be seen when a "butch" female is in a relationship with a "lipstick lesbian," the former embracing more masculine traits, while the latter is extremely feminine. While, within the male homosexual community the complementary gendered relationship would be that of a "macho" or masculine male and a "femme," or feminized male. Sexually this is seen in homosexual relationships where one is more of a "top" and the other a "bottom." The top plays the more assertive, and/or insertive, role in the sexual encounter. For a female homosexual relationship this might involve the use of a "strap-on dildo," while in a male homosexual relationship it would involve genital insertion, the former into the vagina and the latter into the anus.

This complementary social behavioral dimension of homosexual relationships provides the context for supporting the enactment of yin and yang within these relationships. The enactment of these complementary gendered roles is viewed as an expression of yin and yang, within the lipstick/butch and femme/macho homosexual relationships respectively. The lipstick female and femme male respectively would display the yin social characteristics of being tranquil, soft and flexible; while the butch female and macho male would display the yang social characteristics of movement, activity, and strength.

Regarding the application of yin and yang to the sexual dimensions of a homosexual relationship the engagement of the internal furnaces, including through sexual activity, for the refinement of qi is utilized. Recall that Ge Hong noted that it would be wrong for a man to become ill and anxious by not engaging in sexual intercourse, but must do so without indulgence, although it is acceptable with multiple partners (at least for men). Also remember that Zan dongji vividly describes sexual intercourse as a means of renewing life by creating vital energy. Thus the first conclusion, whether one embraces the nature or nurture position, is that sexual activity is necessary for one's life, including one's qi. Consequently, in intercourse the exterior yang enters the interior yin, thus promoting intersexual balance. As it applies to homosexual couples, the "top" male with yang energy would enter the "bottom" male with this yin energy; while for female couples the natural sharing of energies is not facilitated by the use of the inanimate dildo, as noted by Chang, but can still be facilitated through the use of one's qi that is shared through digital and/or oral stimulation by the "dominant" female to the "receptive" female in the relationship. Both enactments were recognized by Chong and reiterated here.

Also within the context of sexual expression one can use breathing to enhance the energies of yin and yang, as advanced by internal- alchemical Daoism. This is most readily accomplished though the sexual response cycle wherein breathing for the active partner can escalate and deepen, particularly as they reach orgasm. As such the active and/or insertive, partner would be using breath work to facilitate the development of their yang energy, if done with the intentions to fuel the internal fires. Contrastingly, the passive and/or receptive partner could breath slowly thus incubating not only their internal energies, but also the energies shared through the sexual experience. Thus if one has intentionality regarding the utilization of sexual practices to enhance one's vital energy, through right intention and mind, it is proposed that one can have a magnification of vital energy within such homosexual sexual encounters.

Finally, for physical behaviors beyond the potential energy dynamics of penetrative sexual activity, foreplay (as noted by Ruan), if sufficiently arousing and because it involves qi or vital energy, can be enough that sexual endeavors need not progress to sexual intercourse. Thus within homosexual parings, even beyond any aforementioned penetrative behaviors, these individuals are certainly capable of engaging in foreplay and thus can stimulate vital energy for themselves and their partners.

Yet physiologically there is a further dimension of yin and yang that can be analyzed within a homosexual relational context that involves the positions of the body during sexual behaviors that might facilitate the flow and enhancement of vital energy or qi between partners. Here it is necessary to recall the internal alchemical Daoist position that yin and yang can be connected via body symmetry. Recall that this symmetry involves the front of the body (yin) and the back of the body (yang) and the upper body (yang) with the lower body (yin). Therefore within a sexual behavioral context homosexuals as well can engage in behaviors that enhance this symmetry. More specifically within homosexual male sexual encounters if the "top" male enters the "bottom" male from a rear entry position, their front would be encountering their partners back. As such the yang of the "bottom" would be encountering the yin of the "top" in a context that has the more gendered male "top" with their yang, also interacting with the female gendered male "bottom's" yin. Thus there are two complementary interactions of yin and yang. Another example would involve oral sexual behaviors where the upper body of one partner encounters the lower body of the other partner. This most certainly occurs when couples, of any sexual orientation, engage in oral sexual stimulation. The upper body yang intersects with the lower body yin in both fellatio and cunnilingus. Again the gendered dimensions of the argument can be applied to both male and female homosexual couples, particularly when it is the gendered "male" that is performing oral sex on their gendered "female" partners. Therefore within these sexual acts, if done with "mindful" intention for the enhancement of qi, the complementary dimensions and interactions of yin and yang can be utilized and facilitated through these sexual acts.

Another dimension of a complementary dimension of homosexual relationships can be seen in the multigenerational or economic dynamics seen within some homosexual couples, which are viewed as expressions of yin and yang. The most visual complementary pairing is when an older person dates a significantly younger person. One conceptualization of this within the male homosexual community is the "daddy"/ "son," (of legal age) pairing. This type of relationship is multigenerational with the older partner generally being at least fifteen to twenty years older than the younger partner. Within these relationships the older partner brings a social, economic, and often psychological stability, and consequently, within the context of this paper, more yang to the relationship. In contrast the younger partner draws upon this social and psychological stability and can provide nurturing to the older partner. Thus the younger partner, within the context of this paper, expresses more yin in the relationship. An examination of over five hundred online profiles from mainland China, at a sight dedicated to multigenerational homosexual relationships, found a vast majority of these individual seeking to find such an older male partner. Additionally, over three hundred of these individuals indicated that one of their preferences was to be the "bottom" within the sexual relationship with these older partners. Thus not only is the complementary nature of yang and yin desired within the social gendered relationship, it is also specifically sought out sexually within the desired relationship [3]. Again, while not establishing causation, these multigenerational pairings of contrasts provide additional support for a complementary relationship that because of these dynamics can facilitate the yin and yang of both individuals. As such, these relationships provide further support of the naturalness of homosexuality as it relates to the Dao.

Conclusion[edit | edit source]

Although there has been some affirmation of homosexuality within the Chinese and Daoist traditions, this affirmation has been somewhat limited regarding the integration of contemporary scientific and cultural research. This analysis attempts to expand and deepen the affirmational and integrative positions for homosexuality within Daoism, with a particular reflection and expansion of the yin and yang concept to sexual orientation while recognising that such a position is outside the traditional Daoist position on yin/yang, male/female and the creation of life. This affirmational position was accomplished through the use of not only more current physiological research but also of cultural research.

While certainly not an exhaustive analysis of these concepts with an application to homosexuality, this analysis provides a clearly articulated position regarding how homosexuality can be affirmatively and integratively supported within Daoism. Physiological and genetic evidence provide the most supportive evidence for this position. Though not scientifically shown to be causative, the strong correlative implications within a physiologically agreed upon location of biological and/or psychological drives in the hypothalamus cannot be dismissed. This combined with the genetic heritability seen in identical twins provides further evidence to support a "nature" position regarding homosexuality. Consequently, if a "nature" position is supported, even with this correlational evidence, the issue of sexual orientation must be seen as springing from nature within the Dao.

From this physiological and genetic foundation, a direct application and expansion of how yin and yang can be viewed within gay sexual and social relationships was argued. Just as with Western culture, historical frameworks for understanding yin and yang must be examined. A detailed and potentially graphic application of yin and yang was presented regarding not only homosexual sexual behaviors, but also complementary social pairings seen within segments of the homosexual community.

Combined, the physiological, genetic and complementary pairings observed within homosexuality and the articulated applications of yin and yang provide a clear theoretical position for the naturalness of homosexuality within Daoism. From this theoretical position, further discussion can and should be undertaken regarding the nuances of homosexuality within Daoism and in particular how yin and yang can be cultivated within such relationships.

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  • Casey & Julie, "What is Daoism’s view on homosexuality?", Personal Dao[2].
  • Mikel Steenrod, "What is Daoism’s Position on Homosexuality and Sexuality?", Daoism Beliefs and Fact, The Daoism for the Modern World[3].
  • Bruce D. LeBlanc, "Envisioning Homosexuality within Daoism - The Orientation and Sexual Dimensions of Yin and Yang", International Journal of Behavioral Research & Psychology, SciDoc Publishers, 19 October 2015[4].

Acknowledgements[edit | edit source]

This article was written by Roy Tan.

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