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Guangzhou, also known as Canton is the capital of Guangdong province in southern China.[1] Located on the Pearl River about Template:Convert north-northwest of Hong Kong and Template:Convert north of Macau, Guangzhou has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road,[2] and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub, as well as one of China's three largest cities.[3] Long the only Chinese port accessible to most foreign traders, Guangzhou was captured by the British during the First Opium War. No longer enjoying a monopoly after the war, it lost trade to other ports such as Hong Kong and Shanghai, but continued to serve as a major transshipment port. Due to a high urban population and large volumes of port traffic, Guangzhou is classified as a Large-Port Megacity, the largest type of port-city in the world.[4]

Guangzhou is at the heart of the most-populous built-up metropolitan area in mainland China, which extends into the neighboring cities of Foshan, Dongguan, Zhongshan, Shenzhen and part of Jiangmen, Huizhou, Zhuhai and Macao, forming the largest urban agglomeration on Earth with more than some 45 million inhabitants[5] and part of the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone. Administratively, the city holds subprovincial status[6] and is one of China's nine National Central Cities.[7] In the late 1990s and early 2000s, nationals of sub-Saharan Africa who had initially settled in the Middle East and Southeast Asia moved in unprecedented numbers to Guangzhou in response to the 1997/98 Asian financial crisis.[8] The domestic migrant population from other provinces of China in Guangzhou was 40% of the city's total population in 2008. Together with Shanghai, Beijing and Shenzhen, Guangzhou has one of the most expensive real estate markets in China.[9] At the end of 2018, the population of the city's expansive administrative area was estimated at 14,904,400 by city authorities, up 3.8% from the previous year.[10]

In the so-called modern commerce, Guangzhou is best known for its annual Canton Fair, the oldest and largest trade fair in China. For three consecutive years (2013–2015), Forbes ranked Guangzhou as the best commercial city in mainland China.[11] Guangzhou is highly ranked as an Alpha- (global first-tier) city together with San Francisco and Stockholm. As an important international city, Guangzhou hosts 65 foreign representatives,[12][13] and ranks 10th in the world and 5th in China (after Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong and Shenzhen) in terms of the number of billionaire residents according to the Hurun Global Rich List 2020.[14]

The city has a high level of scientific research output, ranking 15th globally and fifth in China (after Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing and Wuhan),[15] and is home to many of China's most prestigious universities, including Sun Yat-sen University, South China University of Technology, Jinan University, South China Normal University, South China Agricultural University and Guangdong University of Technology.[16][17]


File:Wuxian Xiadong.jpg

A Qing-era portrait of the Grotto of the Five Immortals, the Taoist temple around the five stones which gave Guangzhou its nickname "The City of Rams".

Guǎngzhōu is the official romanization of the Chinese name Template:Lang-zh. The name of the city is taken from the ancient "Guang Province" after it had become the prefecture's seat of government, which is how some other Chinese cities, including Hangzhou, Suzhou, and Fuzhou got their names. The character Template:Linktext or Template:Linktext—which also appears in the names of the provinces Guangdong and Guangxi, together called the Liangguang—means "broad" or "expansive" and refers to the intention to dispense imperial grace broadly in the region with the founding of the county of Guangxin in the Han Dynasty.

Before acquiring its current name, the town was known as Panyu (Punyü; Template:Linktext), a name still borne by one of Guangzhou's districts not far from the main city. The origin of the name is still uncertain, with 11 various explanations being offered,[18] including that it may have referred to two local mountains.[19][20] The city has also sometimes been known as Guangzhou Fu or Guangfu after its status as the capital of a prefecture. From this latter name, Guangzhou was known to medieval Persians such as Al-Masudi and Ibn Khordadbeh[21] as Khanfu (Template:Lang).[22] Under the Southern Han, the city was renamed Xingwang Fu (Template:Zh).[23][24]

The Chinese abbreviation for Guangzhou is "Template:Linktext" (although the abbreviation on car license plates, as with the rest of the province, is Template:Linktext), after its nickname "City of Rice" (Template:Linktext). The city has long borne the nickname Template:Nowrap (Template:Linktext) or Template:Nowrap (Template:Linktext) from the five stones at the old Temple of the Five Immortals said to have been the sheep or goats ridden by the Taoist culture heroes credited with introducing rice cultivation to the area around the time of the city's foundation.[25] The former name "City of the Immortals" (Template:Linktext/Template:Lang) came from the same story. The more recent Template:Nowrap (Template:Linktext) is usually taken as a simple reference to the area's fine greenery.

The English name "Canton" derived from Portuguese Template:Lang[26] or Template:Lang,[27] a blend of dialectical pronunciations of "Guangdong"[28][29] (e.g., Hakka Kóng-tûng). Although it originally and chiefly applied to the walled city, it was occasionally conflated with Guangdong by some authors.Template:NoteTagTemplate:NoteTag It was adopted as the Postal Map Romanization of Guangzhou, and remained the official name until its name change to "Guangzhou." As an adjective, it is still used in describing the people, language, cuisine and culture of Guangzhou and the surrounding Liangguang region. The 19th-century name "Template:Nowrap"Template:Sfnp derived from Nanjing dialect of Mandarin and the town's status as a prefectural capital.


Main article: Timeline of Guangzhou


A settlement now known as Nanwucheng was present in the area by Template:Nowrap.[30][31] Some traditional Chinese histories placed Nanwucheng's founding during the reign of Ji Yan,[32][33] king of Zhou from 314 to 256 BC. It was said to have consisted of little more than a stockade of bamboo and mud.[32][33]

File:Si lü yu yi.JPG

The jade burial suit of Zhao Mo in Guangzhou's Nanyue King Museum


Guangzhou, then known as Panyu, was founded on the eastern bank of the Pearl RiverTemplate:Sfnp in 215 BC. It was the seat of Qin Empire's Nanhai Commandery, and served as a base for the first invasion of the Baiyue lands in southern China. Legendary accounts claimed that the soldiers at Panyu were so vigilant that they did not remove their armor for three years.[34] Upon the fall of the Qin, General Zhao Tuo established the kingdom of Nanyue and made Panyu its capital in 204 BC. It remained independent throughout the Chu-Han Contention, although Zhao negotiated recognition of his independence in exchange for his nominal submission to the Han in 196 BC.[35] Archeological evidence shows that Panyu was an expansive commercial center: in addition to items from central China, archeologists have found remains originating from Southeast Asia, India, and even Africa.[36] Zhao Tuo was succeeded by Zhao Mo and then Zhao Yingqi. Upon Zhao Yingqi's death in Template:Nowrap, his younger son Zhao Xing was named as his successor in violation of Chinese primogeniture. By Template:Nowrap, his Chinese mother, the Empress Dowager Jiu (Template:Lang) had prevailed upon him to submit Nanyue as a formal part of the Han Empire. The native prime minister Lü Jia (Template:Lang) launched a coup, killing Han ambassadors along with the king, his mother, and their supporters.Template:Sfnp A successful ambush then annihilated a Han force which had been sent to arrest him. Emperor Wu took offense and launched a massive river- and seaborne war: six armies under Lu Bode and Yang Pu[37] took Panyu and annexed Nanyue by the end of 111 BC.Template:Sfnp

Imperial China[]

File:Pearl River Yujitu (cropped).png

Guangzhou (as Template:Lang) on the 1136 Map of the Tracks of Yu

File:Lai Afong, Canton commercial street view, c1880.jpg

Lai Afong's photograph of a commercial street in Guangzhou Template:C.

File:Canton River, 26 May 1841.jpg

Guangzhou ("Canton") and the surrounding islands of Henan ("Hanan"), Pazhou ("Whampoa"), Changzhou ("Dane's Island"), and Xiaoguwei ("French Island") during the First Opium War's Second Battle of Canton. The large East Indiamen of the Canton trade used the anchorage sheltered by these four islands, but the village and island of Huangpu for which it was named make up no part of present-day Guangzhou's Huangpu District.

Incorporated into the Han Dynasty, Panyu became a provincial capital. In AD 226, it became the seat of Guang Prefecture, which gave it its modern name. The Old Book of Tang described Guangzhou as an important port in southern China.[38] Direct routes connected the Middle East and China, as shown in the records of a Chinese prisoner returning home from Iraq twelve years after his capture at Talas.[39] Relations were often strained: Arab and Persian pirates[40] sacked the city on October 30, 758Template:NoteTag[41][42][43][44] and came to an end under the revenge of Chinese rebel Huang Chao in 878, along with the city's Jews, Christians,[45][46][47] and Parsis.[48][49] The port was closed for fifty years after its destruction.[40]

Amid the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms that followed the collapse of the Tang dynasty, the Later Liang governor Liu Yan used his base at Panyu to establish a "Great Yue" or "Southern Han" empire, which lasted from 917 to 971. The region enjoyed considerable cultural and economic success in this period. From the 10th to 12th century, there are records that the large foreign communities were not exclusively male, but included "Persian women".[50][51]Template:NoteTag According to Odoric of Pordenone, Guangzhou was as large as three Venices in terms of area, and rivaled all of Italy in the amount of crafts produced. He also noted the large amount of ginger available as well as large geese and snakes.Template:Sfn Guangzhou was visited by the Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta during his 14th-century journey around the world;Template:Sfnp he detailed the process by which the Chinese constructed their large ships in the port's shipyards.[52]

Shortly after the Hongwu Emperor's declaration of the Ming dynasty, he reversed his earlier support of foreign trade and imposed the first of a series of sea bans (Template:Zh).Template:Sfnp These banned private foreign trade upon penalty of death for the merchant and exile for his family and neighbors.Template:Sfnp The Yuan-era maritime intendancies of Guangzhou, Quanzhou, and Ningbo were closed in 1384Template:Sfnp and legal trade became limited to the tribute delegations sent to or by official representatives of foreign governments.Template:Sfnp

Following the Portuguese conquest of the Melaka Sultanate, Rafael Perestrello traveled to Guangzhou as a passenger on a native junk in 1516.Template:Sfnp His report induced Fernão Pires de Andrade to sail to the city with eight ships the next year,Template:Sfnp but De Andrade's explorationTemplate:Sfnp was understood as spyingTemplate:Sfnp and his brother Simão and others began attempting to monopolize trade,Template:Sfnp enslaving Chinese womenTemplate:Sfnp and children,Template:NoteTag engaging in piracy,Template:Sfnp and fortifying the island of Tamão.Template:SfnpTemplate:Sfnp Rumors even circulated that Portuguese were eating the children.[53]Template:SfnpTemplate:NoteTag The Guangzhou administration was charged with driving them off:Template:Sfnp they bested the Portuguese at the Battle of TunmenTemplate:Sfnp and in Xicao Bay; held a diplomatic mission hostage in a failed attempt to pressure the restoration of the sultan of Malacca,Template:Sfnp who had been accounted a Ming vassal;Template:Sfnp and, after placing them in cangues and keeping them for most of a year, ultimately executed 23 by lingchi.Template:SfnpTemplate:NoteTag With the help of local pirates,[53] the "Folangji" then carried out smuggling at Macao, Lampacau, and Template:Nowrap Island (now Shangchuan),Template:Sfnp until Leonel de Sousa legalized their trade with bribes to Admiral Wang Bo (Template:Lang) and the 1554 Luso-Chinese Accord. The Portuguese undertook not to raise fortifications and to pay customs dues;Template:Sfnp three years later, after providing the Chinese with assistance suppressing their former pirate allies,Template:Sfnp the Portuguese were permitted to warehouse their goods at Macau instead of Guangzhou itself.[54]

In October 1646, the Longwu Emperor's brother, Zhu Yuyue fled by sea to Guangzhou, the last stronghold of the Ming empire. On December 11, he declared himself the Shaowu Emperor, borrowing his imperial regalia from local theater troupes.Template:Sfnp He led a successful offense against his cousin Zhu Youlang but was deposed and executed on 20 January 1647 when the Ming turncoat Li Chengdong (Template:Lang) sacked the city on behalf of the Qing.Template:SfnpTemplate:NoteTag

The Qing became somewhat more receptive to foreign trade after gaining control of Taiwan in 1683.Template:Sfnp The Portuguese from Macau and Spaniards from Manila returned, as did private Muslim, Armenian, and English traders.Template:Sfnp From 1699 to 1714, the French and British East India Companies sent a ship or two each year;Template:Sfnp the Austrian Ostend General India Co. arrived in 1717,Template:Sfnp the Dutch East India Co. in 1729,[55] the Danish Asiatic Co. in 1731,Template:NoteTag and the Swedish East India Co. the next year.Template:Sfnp These were joined by the occasional Prussian or Trieste Company vessel. The first independent American ship arrived in 1784, and the first colonial Australian one in 1788.Template:Citation needed By that time, Guangzhou was one of the world's great ports, organized under the Canton System.Template:Sfnp The main exports were tea and porcelain.Template:Sfnp As a meeting place of merchants from all over the world, Guangzhou became a major contributor to the rise of the modern global economy.[56]

In the 19th century, most of the city's buildings were still only one or two stories. However, there were notable exceptions such as the Flower Pagoda of the Temple of the Six Banyan Trees, and the guard tower known as the Five-Story Pagoda. The subsequently urbanized northern hills were bare and covered with traditional graves. The brick city walls were about Template:Convert in circumference, Template:Convert high, and Template:Convert wide. Its eight main gates and two water gates all held guards during the day and were closed at night. The wall rose to incorporate a hill on its northern side and was surrounded on the other three by a moat which, along with the canals, functioned as the city's sewer, emptied daily by the river's tides. A partition wall with four gates divided the northern "old town" from the southern "new town" closer to the river; the suburb of Xiguan (Saikwan; "West Gate") stretched beyond and the boats of fishers, traders, and Tanka ("boat people") almost entirely concealed the riverbank for about Template:Convert. It was common for homes to have a storefront facing the street and to treat their courtyards as a kind of warehouse.Template:Sfnp The city was part of a network of signal towers so effective that messages could be relayed to Beijing—about Template:Convert away—in less than 24 hours.Template:Sfnp

The Canton System was maintained until the outbreak of the First Opium War in 1839. Following a series of battles in the Pearl River Delta, the British captured Canton on March 18, 1841.Template:Sfnp The Second Battle of Canton was fought two months later.Template:Sfnp Following the Qing's 1842 treaty with Great Britain, Guangzhou lost its privileged trade status as more and more treaty ports were opened to more and more countries, usually including extraterritorial enclaves. Amid the decline of Qing prestige and the chaos of the Red Turban Rebellion (1854–1856), the Punti and Hakka waged a series of clan wars from 1855 to 1867 in which one million people died. The foreign trade facilities were destroyed by local Chinese in the Arrow War (1856–1858). The international community relocated to the outskirts and most international trade moved through Shanghai.[57][58]

The concession for the Canton–Hankow railway was awarded to the American China Development Co. in 1898. It completed its branch line west to Foshan and Sanshui before being engulfed in a diplomatic crisis after a Belgian consortium bought a controlling interest and the Qing subsequently canceled its concession. J.P. Morgan was awarded millions in damages[59] and the line to Wuchang was not completed until 1936[60] and the completion of a unified Beijing–Guangzhou Railway waited until the completion of Wuhan's Yangtze River Bridge in 1957.

Modern China[]


File:黄花岗h - panoramio.jpg

Mausoleum of the 72 Martyrs

During the late Qing Dynasty, Guangzhou was the site of revolutionary attempts such as the Uprisings of 1895 and 1911 that were the predecessors of the successful Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing Dynasty. The 72 revolutionaries whose bodies were found after the latter uprising are honored as the city's 72 Martyrs at the Huanghuagang ("Yellow Flower Mound") Mausoleum.

Republic of China[]

After the assassination of Sung Chiao-jen and Yuan Shihkai's attempts to remove the Nationalist Party of China from power, the leader of Guangdong Hu Hanmin joined the 1913 Second Revolution against him[61] but was forced to flee to Japan with Sun Yat-sen after its failure. The city came under national spotlight again in 1917, when Prime Minister Duan Qirui's abrogation of the constitution triggered the Constitutional Protection Movement. Sun Yat-sen came to head the Guangzhou Military Government supported by the members of the dissolved parliament and the Southwestern warlords. The Guangzhou government fell apart as the warlords withdrew their support. Sun fled to Shanghai in November 1918 until the Guangdong warlord Chen Jiongming restored him in October 1920 during the Yuegui Wars.Template:Sfnp On 16 June 1922, Sun was ousted in a coup and fled on the warship Yongfeng after Chen sided with the Zhili Clique's Beijing government. In the following months Sun mounted a counterattack into Guangdong by rallying supporters from Yunnan and Guangxi, and in January established a government in the city for the third time.

File:Naval Jack of the Republic of China.svg

Flag of Kuomintang

From 1923 to 1926 Sun and the Kuomintang used the city as a base to prosecute a renewed revolution in China by conquering the warlords in the north. Although Sun was previously dependent on opportunistic warlords who hosted him in the city, with the leadership of Chiang Kai-shek, the KMT developed its own military power to serve its ambition. The Canton years saw the evolution of the KMT into a revolutionary movement with a strong military focus and ideological commitment, setting the tone of the KMT rule of China beyond 1927.

In 1924, the KMT made the momentous decision to ally with the Communist Party and the USSR. With Soviet help, KMT reorganized itself along the Leninist line and adopted a pro-labor and pro-peasant stance. The Kuomintang-CCP cooperation was confirmed in the First Congress of the KMT and the communists were instructed to join the KMT. The allied government set up the Peasant Movement Training Institute in the city, of which Mao Zedong was a director for one term. Sun and his military commander Chiang used Soviet funds and weapons to build an armed force staffed by communist commissars, training its cadres in the Whampoa Military Academy.Template:Sfnp In August, the fledgling army suppressed the Canton Merchants' Corps Uprising. The next year the anti-imperialist May Thirtieth Movement swept the country, and the KMT government called for strikes in Canton and Hong Kong. The tensions of the massive strikes and protests led to the Shakee Massacre.

After the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925 the mood was changing in the party toward the communists. In August the left-wing KMT leader Liao Zhongkai was assassinated and the right-wing leader Hu Hanmin, the suspected mastermind, was exiled to the Soviet Union, leaving the pro-communist Wang Jingwei in charge. Opposing communist encroachment, the right-wing Western Hills Group vowed to expel the communists from the KMT. The "Canton Coup" on 20 March 1926 saw Chiang solidify his control over the Nationalists and their army against Wang Jingwei, the party's left wing, its Communist allies, and its Soviet advisors.[62][63] By May, he had ended civilian control of the military[63] and begun his Northern Expedition against the warlords of the north. Its success led to the split of the KMT between Wuhan and Nanking and the purge of the communists in the April 12 Incident. Immediately afterwards Canton joined the purge under the auspice of Li Jishen, resulting in the arrest of communists and the suspension of left wing KMT apparatuses and labor groups. Later in 1927 when Zhang Fakui, a general supportive of the Wuhan faction seized Canton and installed Wang Jingwei's faction in the city, the communists saw an opening and launched the Guangzhou Uprising. Prominent communist military leaders Ye Ting and Ye Jianying led the failed defense of the city. Soon, control of the city reverted to Li Jishen.

Li was deposed during a war between Chiang and the Kwangsi Clique. By 1929, Chen Jitang had established himself as the powerholder of Guangdong. In 1931 he threw his weight behind the anti-Chiang schism by hosting a separate Nationalist government in Guangzhou.[64] Opposing Chiang's alleged dictatorship, the separatists included KMT leaders like Wang Ching-wei, Sun Fo and others from diverse factions. The peace negotiations amid the armed standoff led to the 4th National Congress of Kuomintang being held separately by three factions in Nanjing, Shanghai and Canton. Resigning all his posts, Chiang pulled off a political compromise that reunited all factions. While the intraparty division was resolved, Chen kept his power until he was defeated by Chiang in 1936.

During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the "Canton Operation" subjected the city to Japanese occupation by the end of December 1938.

People's Republic of China[]

Amid the closing months of the Chinese Civil War, Guangzhou briefly served as the capital of the Republic of China after the taking of Nanjing by the PLA in April 1949. The People's Liberation Army entered the city on 14 October 1949. Amid a massive exodus to Hong Kong and Macau, the Nationalists blew up the Haizhu Bridge across the Pearl River in retreat. The Cultural Revolution had a large effect on the city with much of its temples, churches and other monuments destroyed during this chaotic period.

The People's Republic of China initiated building projects including new housing on the banks of the Pearl River to adjust the city's boat people to life on land. Since the 1980s, the city's close proximity to Hong Kong and Shenzhen and its ties to overseas Chinese have made it one of the first beneficiaries of China's opening up under Deng Xiaoping. Beneficial tax reforms in the 1990s have also helped the city's industrialization and economic development.

The municipality was expanded in the year 2000, with Huadu and Panyu joining the city as urban districts and Conghua and Zengcheng as more rural counties. The former districts of Dongshan and Fangcun were abolished in 2005, merged into Yuexiu and Liwan respectively. The city acquired Nansha and Luogang. The former was carved out of Panyu, the latter from parts of Baiyun, Tianhe, Zengcheng, and an exclave within Huangpu. The National People's Congress approved a development plan for the Pearl River Delta in January 2009; on March 19 the same year, the Guangzhou and Foshan municipal governments agreed to establish a framework to merge the two cities.[65] In 2014, Luogang merged into Huangpu and both Conghua and Zengcheng counties were upgraded to districts.




Template:Location map+


Map of Guangzhou (labeled as KUANG-CHOU (CANTON) Template:Lang) in surrounding region (AMS, 1954)

File:Tiantang Peak.jpg

Tiantang Peak, highest mountain in Guangzhou

The old town of Guangzhou was near Baiyun Mountain on the east bank of the Pearl River (Zhujiang) about Template:Convert from its junction with the South China Sea and about Template:Convert below its head of navigation.Template:Sfnp It commanded the rich alluvial plain of the Pearl River Delta, with its connection to the sea protected at the Humen Strait.Template:Sfnp The present city spans Template:Convert on both sides of the river from Template:Nowrap to Template:Nowrap longitude and Template:Nowrap to Template:Nowrap latitude in south-central Guangdong. The Pearl is the 4th-largest river of China.[68] Intertidal ecosystems exist on the tidal flat lining the river estuary, however, many of the tidal flats have been reclaimed for agriculture.[69] Baiyun Mountain is now locally referred to as the city's "lung" (Template:Lang).[3][70]Template:Why?

The elevation of the prefecture generally increases from southwest to northeast, with mountains forming the backbone of the city and the ocean comprising the front. Tiantang Peak (Template:Zh, "Heavenly Peak") is the highest point of elevation at Template:Convert above sea level.

Template:Adjacent communities

Natural resources[]

There are 47 different types of minerals and also 820 ore fields in Guangzhou, including 18 large and medium-sized oil deposits. The major minerals are granite, cement limestone, ceramic clay, potassium, albite, salt mine, mirabilite, nepheline, syenite, fluorite, marble, mineral water, and geothermal mineral water. Since Guangzhou is located in the water-rich area of southern China, it has a wide water area with many rivers and water systems, accounting for 10% of the total land area. The rivers and streams improve the landscape and keep the ecological environment of the city stable.[71]


Despite being located just south of the Tropic of Cancer, Guangzhou has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa/Cwa) influenced by the East Asian monsoon. Summers are wet with high temperatures, high humidity, and a high heat index. Winters are mild and comparatively dry. Guangzhou has a lengthy monsoon season, spanning from April through September. Monthly averages range from Template:Convert in January to Template:Convert in July, while the annual mean is Template:Convert.[3] Autumn, from October to December, is very moderate, cool and windy, and is the best travel time.[72] The relative humidity is approximately 68 percent, whereas annual rainfall in the metropolitan area is over Template:Convert.[3] With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 17 percent in March and April to 52 percent in November, the city receives 1,628 hours of bright sunshine annually, considerably less than nearby Shenzhen and Hong Kong. Extreme temperatures have ranged from Template:Convert to Template:Convert.[73] The last recorded snowfall in the city was on 24 January 2016, 87 years after the second last recorded snowfall.[74]

Template:Guangzhou weatherbox

Administrative divisions[]

Main article: List of administrative divisions of Guangzhou

Guangzhou is a subprovincial city. It has direct jurisdiction over eleven districts:

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Administrative divisions of Guangzhou
Division Area
Seat Postal
Subdistricts Towns Residential
440100 Guangzhou 7,434.40 12,701,948 Yuexiu 510000 136 34 1533 1142
440103 Liwan 59.10 898,200 Shiweitang Subdistrict 510000 22   195  
440104 Yuexiu 33.80 1,157,666 Beijing Subdistrict 510000 18   267  
440105 Haizhu 90.40 1,558,663 Jianghai Subdistrict 510000 18   257  
440106 Tianhe 96.33 1,432,426 Tianyuan Subdistrict 510000 21   205  
440111 Baiyun 795.79 2,223,150 Jingtai Subdistrict 510000 18 4 253 118
440112 Huangpu 484.17 831,586 Luogang Subdistrict 510500 14 1 90 28
440113 Panyu 529.94 1,764,828 Shiqiao Subdistrict 511400 11 5 87 177
440114 Huadu 970.04 945,005 Huacheng Subdistrict 510800 4 6 50 188
440115 Nansha 783.86 259,900 Huangge Town 511400 3 6 28 128
440117 Conghua 1,974.50 593,415 Jiekou Subdistrict 510900 3 5 46 221
440118 Zengcheng 1,616.47 1,037,109 Licheng Subdistrict 511300 4 7 55 282



File:1957 Canton Fair.jpg

The first Canton Fair (1957) at the Sino-Soviet Friendship Building

Guangzhou is the main manufacturing hub of the Pearl River Delta, one of mainland China's leading commercial and manufacturing regions. In 2017, the GDP reached ¥2,150 billion (US$318 billion), per capita was ¥150,678 (US$22,317).[79] Guangzhou is considered one of the most prosperous cities in China. Guangzhou ranks 10th in the world and 5th in China (after Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong and Shenzhen) in terms of the number of billionaires according to the Hurun Global Rich List 2020.[14] Guangzhou is projected to be among the world top 10 largest cities in terms of nominal GDP in 2035 (together with Shanghai, Beijing and Shenzhen in China) according to a study by Oxford Economics,[80] and its nominal GDP per capita will reach above US$42,000 in 2030.[81] Guangzhou also ranks 21st globally (between Washington, D.C. and Amsterdam) and 8th in the whole Asia and the Pacific (behind Shanghai, Tokyo, Hong Kong, Singapore, Beijing, Shenzhen and Dubai) in the 2020 Global Financial Centers Index (GFCI).[82] Owing to rapid industrialization, it was once also considered a rather polluted city. After green urban planning was implemented, it is now one of the most livable cities in China.

The Canton Fair, formally the "China Import and Export Fair", is held every year in April and October by the Ministry of Trade. Inaugurated in the spring of 1957, the fair is a major event for the city. It is the trade fair with the longest history, highest level, and largest scale in China.[83] From the 104th session onwards, the fair moved to the new Guangzhou International Convention and Exhibition Center (Template:Lang) in Pazhou, from the older complex in Liuhua. The GICEC is served by two stations on Line 8 and three stations on Tram Line THZ1. Since the 104th session, the Canton Fair has been arranged in three phases instead of two phases.

Local products[]

Template:More citations needed section

  • Cantonese is one of China's most famous and popular regional cuisines, with a saying stating simply to "Eat in Guangzhou" (Template:Lang)Template:NoteTag
  • Cantonese sculpture includes work in jade, wood, and (now controversially) ivory.
  • Canton porcelain developed over the past three centuries as one of the major forms of exportware. It is now known within China for its highly colorful style.
  • Cantonese embroidery is one of China's four main styles of the embroidery, and is represented in Guangzhou, although the industry is mainly centered in Chaozhou.
  • Zhujiang Beer, a pale lager, is one of China's most successful brands. It is made in Guangzhou from water piped directly to the brewery from a natural spring.


Guangzhou Peugeot Automobile Company produced the Peugeot 504 and Peugeot 505 automobiles from 1989 to 1997.

  • Guangzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone
  • Guangzhou Nansha Export Processing Zone
    The Export Processing Zone was founded in 2005. Its total planned area is Template:Convert.[84] It is located in Nansha District and it belongs to the provincial capital, Guangzhou. The major industries encouraged in the zone include automobile assembly, biotechnology and heavy industry. It is situated Template:Convert (a 70 minutes drive) south of Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport and close to Nansha Port. It also has the advantage of Guangzhou Metro line 4 which is being extended to Nansha Ferry Terminal.
  • Guangzhou Free Trade Zone
    The zone was founded in 1992. It is located in the east of Huangpu District and near to Guangzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone. It is also very close to Guangzhou Baiyun Airport.[85] The major industries encouraged in the zone include international trade, logistics, processing and computer software. Recently the Area has been rebranded and is now being marketed under the name Huangpu District. Next to the industries above, new sectors are being introduced to the business environment, including new energy, AI, new mobility, new materials, information and communication technology and new transport. It is also Home to the Guangzhou IP Court.[86]
  • Guangzhou Science City


Template:Historical populations The 2010 census found Guangzhou's population to be 12.78 million. Template:As of, it was estimated at 13,080,500,[87][88] with 11,264,800 urban residents.[89] Its population density is thus around 1,800 people per km2. The built-up area of the Guangzhou proper connects directly to several other cities. The built-up area of the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone covers around Template:Convert and has been estimated to house 22 million people, including Guangzhou's nine urban districts, Shenzhen (5.36m), Dongguan (3.22m), Zhongshan (3.12m), most of Foshan (2.2m), Jiangmen (1.82m), Zhuhai (890k), and Huizhou's Huiyang District (760k).Template:Citation needed The total population of this agglomeration is over 28 million after including the population of the adjacent Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.Template:Citation needed The area's fast-growing economy and high demand for labor has produced a huge "floating population" of migrant workers; thus, up to 10 million migrants reside in the area least six months each year.Template:Citation needed In 2008, about five million of Guangzhou's permanent residents were hukouless migrants.[90]

Ethnicity and language[]

Most of Guangzhou's population is Han Chinese. Almost all Cantonese people speak Cantonese as their first language,Template:Refn while most migrants speak forms of Mandarin.[90] In 2010, each language was the native tongue of roughly half of the city's population,Template:Refn although minor but substantial numbers speak other varieties as well.Template:Citation needed In 2018, He Huifeng of the South China Morning Post stated that younger residents have increasingly favored using Mandarin instead of Cantonese in their daily lives, causing their Cantonese-speaking grandparents and parents to use Mandarin to communicate with them. He Huifeng stated that factors included local authorities discouraging the use of Cantonese in schools and the rise in prestige of Mandarin-speaking Shenzhen.[91] Jinan University released a survey result of the Guangzhou youths born in the year 2000 or after that were part of this educational study showed that 69% could still speak and understand Cantonese, 20% can understand Cantonese, but unable to speak it, and 11% completely had no knowledge of Cantonese. Jinan University's study of these Guangzhou youths also indicated when it came to the daily recreational use of Cantonese, roughly 40%-50% of them participated in these recreational functions with the usage of Cantonese with 51.4% of them in mobile games, 47% in Social Platforms, 44.1% in TV shows, and 39.8% in Books and Newspapers. Despite some decline in the use of Cantonese, it is faring better in survival, popularity, and prestige than other Chinese languages due to the historical pride in the language and culture, as well as the wide popularity and availability of mainstream Cantonese entertainment, which encourages locals to retain the Cantonese language.[92][93] Guangzhou has an even more unbalanced gender ratio than the rest of the country. While most areas of China have 112–120 boys per 100 girls, the Guangdong province that houses Guangzhou has more than 130 boys for every 100 girls.[94]

Recent years have seen a huge influx of migrants, with up to 30 million additional migrants living in the Guangzhou area for at least six months out of every year with the majority being female migrants and many becoming local Guangzhou people. This huge influx of people from other areas, called the floating population, is due to the city's fast-growing economy and high labor demands. Guangzhou Mayor Wan Qingliang told an urban planning seminar that Guangzhou is facing a very serious population problem stating that, while the city had 10.33 million registered residents at the time with targets and scales of land use based on this number, the city actually had a population with migrants of nearly 15 million. According to the Guangzhou Academy of Social Sciences researcher Peng Peng, the city is almost at its maximum capacity of just 15 million, which means the city is facing a great strain, mostly due to a high population of unregistered people.[94]

According to the 2000 National Census, marriage is one of the top two reasons for permanent migration and particular important for women as 29.3% of the permanent female migrants migrate for marriage [Liang et al.,2004]. Many of the female economic migrants marry men from Guangzhou in hopes of a better life.[95] but like elsewhere in the People's Republic of China, the household registration system (hukou) limits migrants' access to residences, educational institutions and other public benefits. It has been noted that many women end up in prostitution.[96] In May 2014, legally employed migrants in Guangzhou were permitted to receive a hukou card allowing them to marry and obtain permission for their pregnancies in the city, rather than having to return to their official hometowns as previously.[97]

Historically, the Cantonese people have made up a sizable part of the 19th- and 20th-century Chinese diaspora; in fact, many overseas Chinese have ties to Guangzhou. This is particularly true in the United States,[98] Canada,[99] and Australia.

Demographically, the only significant immigration into China has been by overseas Chinese, but Guangzhou sees many foreign tourists, workers, and residents from the usual locations such as the United States. Notably, it is also home to thousands of African immigrants, including people from Nigeria, Somalia, Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo.[100]

Metropolitan area[]

The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) to have, Template:As of, a population of 25 million.[101][102]



File:Guangzhou 1991.jpg

The east square of Guangzhou railway station in 1991.

Urban mass transit[]

Main article: Guangzhou Metro

When the first line of the Guangzhou Metro opened in 1997, Guangzhou was the fourth city in Mainland China to have an underground railway system, behind Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai. Currently the metro network is made up of thirteen lines, covering a total length of Template:Convert.[103] A long-term plan is to make the city's metro system expand to over Template:Convert by 2020 with 15 lines in operation. In addition to the metro system there is also the Haizhu Tram line which opened on 31 December 2014.[104]

The Guangzhou Bus Rapid Transit (GBRT) system which was introduced in 2010 along Zhongshan Road. It has several connections to the metro and is the world's 2nd-largest bus rapid transit system with 1,000,000 passenger trips daily.[105] It handles 26,900 pphpd during the peak hour a capacity second only to the TransMilenio BRT system in Bogota.[106] The system averages one bus every 10 seconds or 350 per hour in a single direction and contains the world's longest BRT stations—around Template:Convert including bridges.

Motor transport[]

Template:See also In the 19th century, the city already had over 600 long, straight streets; these were mostly paved but still very narrow.Template:Sfnp In June 1919, work began on demolishing the city wall to make way for wider streets and the development of tramways. The demolition took three years in total.[107]

In 2009, it was reported that all 9,424 buses and 17,695 taxis in Guangzhou would be operating on LPG-fuel by 2010 to promote clean energy for transport and improve the environment ahead of the 2010 Asian Games which were held in the city.[108] At presentTemplate:When, Guangzhou is the city that uses the most LPG-fueled vehicles in the world, and at the end of 2006, 6,500 buses and 16,000 taxis were using LPG, taking up 85 percent of all buses and taxis.Template:Citation needed

Effective January 1, 2007, the municipal government banned motorcycles in Guangdong's urban areas. Motorcycles found violating the ban are confiscated.[109] The Guangzhou traffic bureau claimed to have reported reduced traffic problems and accidents in the downtown area since the ban.[110]


Guangzhou's main airport is the Baiyun International Airport in Baiyun District; it opened on August 5, 2004.[111] This airport is the second busiest airport in terms of traffic movements in China. It replaced the old Baiyun International Airport, which was very close to the city center but failed to meet the city's rapidly growing air traffic demand. The old Baiyun International Airport was in operation for 72 years. Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport now has three runways, with two more planned.[112] The Terminal 2 has opened on April 26, 2018.[113] Another airport located in Zengcheng District is under planning.[114]

Guangzhou is served by Hong Kong International Airport; ticketed passengers can take ferries from the Lianhuashan Ferry Terminal and Nansha Ferry Port in Nansha District to the HKIA Skypier.[115] There are also coach bus services connecting Guangzhou with HKIA.[116]


Template:Further Guangzhou is the terminus of the Beijing–Guangzhou, Guangzhou–Shenzhen, Guangzhou–Maoming and Guangzhou–Meizhou–Shantou conventional speed railways. In late 2009, the Wuhan–Guangzhou high-speed railway started service, with multiple unit trains covering Template:Convert at a top speed of Template:Convert. In December 2014, the Guiyang–Guangzhou high-speed railway and Nanning-Guangzhou railway began service with trains running at top speeds of Template:Convert and Template:Convert, respectively.[117] The Guangdong Through Train departs from the Guangzhou East railway station and arrives at the Hung Hom station in Kowloon, Hong Kong. The route is approximately Template:Convert in length and the ride takes less than two hours. Frequent coach services are also provided with coaches departing every day from different locations (mostly major hotels) around the city. A number of regional railways radiating from Guangzhou started operating such as the Guangzhou–Zhuhai intercity railway and the Guangzhou-Foshan-Zhaoqing intercity railway.

Water transport[]

There are daily high-speed catamaran services between Nansha Ferry Terminal and Lianhua Shan Ferry Terminal in Guangzhou and the Hong Kong China Ferry Terminal, as well as between Nansha Ferry Terminal and Macau Ferry Pier in Hong Kong.


File:Guangzhou Opera House(Near).JPG

Guangzhou Opera House

Within China, the culture of the Cantonese people is a subset of the larger "Southern" or "Lingnan" cultural areas. Notable aspects of Guangzhou's cultural heritage include:

  • Cantonese language, the local and prestige variant of Yue Chinese
  • Cantonese cuisine, one of China's eight major culinary traditions[118]Template:NoteTag
  • Cantonese opera, usually divided into martial and literary performances
  • Xiguan (Saikwan), the area west of the former walled city

The Guangzhou Opera House & Symphony Orchestra also perform classical Western music and Chinese compositions in their style. Cantonese music is a traditional style of Chinese instrumental music, while Cantopop is the local form of pop music and rock-and-roll which developed from neighboring Hong Kong.


Qing-era Guangzhou had around 124 religious pavilions, halls, and temples.Template:Sfnp Today, in addition to the Buddhist Association, Guangzhou also has a Taoist Association, a Jewish community,[119][120] as well as a history with Christianity, reintroduced to China by colonial powers.Template:Clarify


Taoism and Chinese folk religion are still represented at a few of the city's temples. Among the most important is the Temple of the Five Immortals, honoring the five immortals credited with introducing rice cultivation at the foundation of the city. The five rams they rode were supposed to have turned into stones upon their departure and gave the city several of its nicknames.[121] Another place of worship is the City God Temple. Guangzhou, like most of southern China, is also notably observant concerning ancestral veneration during occasions like the Tomb Sweeping and Ghost Festivals.


Buddhism is the most prominent religion in Guangzhou.[122] The Zhizhi Temple was founded in AD 233 from the estate of a Wu official; it is said to comprise the residence of Zhao Jiande, the last of the Nanyue kings, and has been known as the Guangxiao Temple ("Temple of Bright Filial Piety") since the Ming. The missionary Bodhidharma is traditionally said to have visited Panyu during the Liu Song or Liang dynasties (5th or 6th century). Around AD 520, Emperor Wu of the Liang ordered the construction of the Baozhuangyan Temple and the Xilai Monastery to store the relics of Cambodian Buddhist saints which had been brought to the city and to house the monks beginning to assemble there. The Baozhuangyan is now known as the Temple of the Six Banyan Trees, after a famous poem composed by Su Shi after a visit during the Northern Song.Template:Citation needed The Xilai Monastery was renamed the Hualin Temple ("Flowery Forest Temple") after its reconstruction during the Qing.

The temples were damaged by both the Republican campaign to "Promote Education with Temple Property" (Template:Lang) and the Maoist Cultural Revolution but have been renovated since the opening up that began in the 1980s. The Ocean Banner Temple on Henan Island, once famous in the west as the only tourist spot in Guangzhou accessible to foreigners, has been reopened as the Hoi Tong Monastery.


Nestorian Christians first arrived in China via the overland Silk Road, but suffered during Emperor Wuzong's 845 persecution and were essentially extinct by the year 1000.[123]Template:Specify The Qing-era ban on foreigners limited missionaries until it was abolished following the First Opium War, although the Protestant Robert Morrison was able to perform some work through his service with the British factory. The Catholic Archdiocese of Guangzhou is housed at Guangzhou's Sacred Heart Cathedral, known locally as the "Stone House". A Gothic Revival edifice which was built by hand from 1861 to 1888 under French direction, its original Latin and French stained-glass windows were destroyed during the wars and amid the Cultural Revolution; they have since been replaced by English ones. The Canton Christian College (1888) and Hackett Medical College for Women (1902) were both founded by missionaries and now form part of Guangzhou's Lingnan. Since the opening up of China in the 1980s, there has been renewed interest in Christianity, but Guangzhou maintains pressure on underground churches which avoid registration with government officials.[124] The Catholic archbishop Dominic Tang was imprisoned without trial for 22 years; however, his present successor is recognized by both the Vatican and China's Patriotic Church.


Guangzhou has had ties with the Islamic world since the Tang Dynasty.[125] Relations were often strained: Arab and Persian pirates sacked the city on October 30, 758; the port was subsequently closed for fifty years.[40][41][42][43][44] Their presence came to an end under the revenge of Chinese rebel Huang Chao in 878, along with that of the Jews, Christians,[45][46][47] and Parsis.[48][49] Nowadays, the city is home to halal restaurants.[126]


File:Stade Olympique Guangdong.JPG

Guangdong Olympic Stadium

File:Tianhe Stadium.jpg

Tianhe Stadium is the home of Guangzhou F.C.

File:Yuexiushan Stadium After Refurb (2019).jpg

Yuexiushan Stadium is the home of Guangzhou City F.C.

The 11,468 seat Guangzhou Gymnasium was one of the venues for the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup.[127]

From 12 to 27 November 2010, Guangzhou hosted the 16th Asian Games. The same year, it hosted the first Asian Para Games from December 12 to 19. Combined, these were the major sporting events the city ever hosted.[128]

Guangzhou also hosted the following major sporting events:

  • 1987 The 6th National Games of China
  • 1991 The 1st FIFA Women's World Cup
  • 2001 The 2001 National Games of China
  • 2007 The 8th National Traditional Games of Ethnic Minorities of the People's Republic of China
  • 2008 The 49th World Table Tennis Championships
  • 2009 The 11th Sudirman Cup: the world badminton mixed team championships

Current professional sports clubs based in Guangzhou include:

Sport League Tier Club Stadium
Football Chinese Super League 1st Guangzhou Tianhe Stadium
Football Chinese Super League 1st Guangzhou City Yuexiushan Stadium
Esports (Overwatch) Overwatch League 1st Guangzhou Charge Tianhe Gymnasium
Basketball Chinese Basketball Association 1st Guangzhou Loong Lions Tianhe Gymnasium
Baseball China Baseball League 1st Guangdong Leopards Tianhe Sports Center baseball field

In the 2010s, Guangzhou has risen to be a football powerhouse of China, having won eight national titles between 2011 and 2019. The team has also won the AFC Champions League in 2013 and 2015. The club has competed at the 2013 and 2015 FIFA Club World Cup, where it lost 3–0 in the semifinal stage to the 2012–13 UEFA Champions League winners FC Bayern Munich and the 2014–15 UEFA Champions League winners FC Barcelona, respectively.[129]


Eight Views[]

Main article: Eight Views
File:Guangzhou Tower.jpg

Canton Tower[130]

The Eight Views of Ram City are Guangzhou's eight most famous tourist attractions. They have varied over time since the Song dynasty, with some being named or demoted by emperors. The following modern list was chosen through public appraisal in 2011:Template:Citation needed Template:Div col

  • "Towers Shining through the New Town"
  • "The Pearl River Flowing and Shining": The Pearl River from Bai'etan to Pazhou
  • "Cloudy Mountain Green and Tidy": Baiyun Mountain Scenic Area
  • "Yuexiu's Grandeur": Yuexiu Hill and Park
  • "The Ancient Academy's Lingering Fame": The Chen Clan Ancestral Hall and its folk art museum
  • "Liwan's Wonderful Scenery": Liwan Lake
  • "Science City, Splendid as Brocade"
  • "Wetlands Singing at Night": Nansha Wetlands Park

Template:Div col end

File:Semal (Bombax ceiba) flowers in Kolkata W IMG 4132.jpg

Bombax ceiba, Guangzhou's official flower

Parks and gardens[]

Template:Div col

  • Baiyun Mountain
  • Nansha Wetland Park
  • People's Park
  • South China Botanical Garden
  • Yuexiu Park
  • Dongshanhu Park (Template:Zh)
  • Liuhuahu Park (Template:Zh)
  • Liwanhu Park (Template:Zh)
  • Luhu Park (Template:Zh)
  • Martyrs' Park (Template:Zh)
  • Pearl River Park (Template:Zh)
  • Yuntai Garden (Template:Zh)
  • Shimen National Forest Park(Template:Zh)
  • Haizhu Lake Park(Template:Zh)

Template:Div col end

Tourist attractions[]

Guangzhou attracts more than 223 million visitors each year, and the total revenue of the tourism exceeded 400 billion in 2018.[131] There are many tourist attractions, including: Template:Div col

  • Canton Tower
  • Chen Clan Ancestral Hall, housing Guangzhou's folk art museum
  • Chime-Long Paradise
  • Chime-Long Waterpark (Template:Zh)
  • Guangdong Provincial Museum
  • Guangzhou Zoo
  • Mulberry Park, public center which demonstrates mulberry growing and silk making
  • Museum of the Mausoleum of the Nanyue King
  • Peasant Movement Training Institute, an important Maoist site
  • Sacred Heart Cathedral (Stone House)
  • Temple of Bright Filial Piety (Guangxiao)
  • Temple of the Six Banyan Trees (Liurong), site of the Flowery Pagoda
  • Shamian or Shameen Island, the old trading compound
  • Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, site of Guangzhou's former presidential palace
  • Xiguan(Saikwan), the western suburbs of the old city

Template:Div col end

Template:Wide image Template:Wide image

Pedestrian streets[]

In every district there are many shopping areas where people can walk on the sidewalks; however most of them are not set as pedestrian streets.

File:1 guangzhou shopping 2011.JPG

Shangxiajiu Pedestrian Street

The popular pedestrian streets are: Template:Div col

  • Beijing Road pedestrian street
  • Shangxiajiu Pedestrian Street
  • Huacheng Square (Flower City Square)

Template:Div col end

Malls and shopping centers[]

There are many malls and shopping centers in Guangzhou. The majority of the new malls are located in the Tianhe district.

Template:Div col

  • 101 Dynamics
  • China Plaza
  • Liwan Plaza
  • Teem Plaza
  • Victory Plaza
  • Wanguo Plaza
  • Grandview Mall (Grandview Mall Aquarium)
  • Wanda square
  • Happy Valley (Guangzhou)
  • TaiKoo Hui
  • Parc Central
  • OneLinkWalk
  • Rock Square
  • Aeon Mall
  • GT Land Plaza
  • IFC Plaza
  • IGC Mall
  • Mall of the World
  • K11
  • Fashion Tianhe

Template:Div col end

Major buildings[]

Main article: List of tallest buildings in Guangzhou Template:See also

Template:Div col

  • CITIC Plaza
  • Canton Tower
  • Guangzhou Circle Mansion
  • Guangdong Olympic Stadium
  • Guangzhou Opera House
  • Guangzhou TV Tower
  • Pearl River Tower
  • The Twin Towers:
    • Guangzhou International Finance Center (West)
    • The CTF Guangzhou (East)

Template:Div col end


Guangzhou has two local radio stations: the provincial Radio Guangdong and the municipal Radio Guangzhou. Together they broadcast in more than a dozen channels. The primary language of both stations is Cantonese. Traditionally only one channel of Radio Guangdong is dedicated to Mandarin Chinese. However, in recent years there has been an increase in Mandarin programs on most Cantonese channels. Radio stations from cities around Guangzhou mainly broadcast in Cantonese and can be received in different parts of the city, depending on the radio stations' locations and transmission power. The Beijing-based China National Radio also broadcasts Mandarin programs in the city. Radio Guangdong has a 30-minute weekly English programs, Guangdong Today, which is broadcast globally through the World Radio Network. Daily English news programs are also broadcast by Radio Guangdong.

Guangzhou has some of the most notable Chinese-language newspapers and magazines in mainland China, most of which are published by three major newspaper groups in the city, the Guangzhou Daily Press Group, Nanfang Press Corporation, and the Yangcheng Evening News Group. The two leading newspapers of the city are Guangzhou Daily and Southern Metropolis Daily. The former, with a circulation of 1.8 million, has been China's most successful newspaper for 14 years in terms of advertising revenue, while Southern Metropolis Daily is considered one of the most liberal newspapers in mainland China. In addition to Guangzhou's Chinese-language publications, there are a few English magazines and newspapers. The most successful is That's Guangzhou, which started more than a decade ago and has since blossomed into That's PRD, producing expatriate magazines in Beijing and Shanghai as well. It also produces In the Red.



File:North Square of SYSU.jpg

Sun Yat-sen University main gate


The College of Medical Science at Sun Yat-sen University

File:Guangzhou Library 2013.11.15 18-30-36.jpg

Guangzhou Library

The Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, also known as Guangzhou University Town (Template:Lang), is a large tertiary education complex located in the southeast suburbs of Guangzhou. It occupies the entirety of Xiaoguwei Island in Panyu District, covering an area of about Template:Convert. The complex accommodates campuses from ten higher education institutions and can eventually accommodate up to 200,000 students, 20,000 teachers, and 50,000 staff.[132]

The Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center's higher education campuses are as follows:

  • Guangdong Pharmaceutical University
  • Guangdong University of Foreign Studies
  • Guangdong University of Technology
  • Guangzhou Academy of Fine Arts
  • Guangzhou University
  • Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine
  • South China Normal University
  • South China University of Technology
  • Sun Yat-sen University
  • Xinghai Conservatory of Music

Guangzhou's other fully accredited and degree-granting universities and colleges include:

  • Guangdong Institute of Science and Technology
  • Guangdong Polytechnic Normal University
  • Guangdong University of Finance & Economics
  • Guangdong University of Finance
  • Guangzhou College of South China University of Technology
  • Guangzhou Medical University
  • Guangzhou Sports University
  • Jinan University
  • South China Agricultural University
  • Southern Medical University
  • Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering

The two main comprehensive libraries are Guangzhou Library and Sun Yat-sen Library of Guangdong Province. Guangzhou Library is a public library in Guangzhou. The library has moved to a new building in Zhujiang New Town, which fully opened on 23 June 2013.[133] Sun Yat-sen Library of Guangdong Province has the largest collection of ancient books in Southern China.[134]

International relations[]

Template:More citations needed section Template:See also

Twin towns and sister cities[]

Guangzhou currently maintains sister city agreements with the following foreign cities.[135][136] Template:Div col

  • Fukuoka, Japan (since 1979)
  • Los Angeles, United States (since 1981)
  • Manila, Philippines (since 1982)
  • Vancouver, Canada (since 1985)
  • Sydney, Australia (since 1986)
  • Bari, Italy (since 1986)
  • Lyon, France (since 1988)
  • Frankfurt, Germany (since 1988)
  • Auckland, New Zealand (since 1989)
  • Gwangju, South Korea (since 1996)
  • Durban, South Africa (since 2000)
  • Bristol, United Kingdom (since 2001)
  • Yekaterinburg, Russia (since 2002)
  • Arequipa, Peru (since 2004)
  • Surabaya, Indonesia (since 2005)
  • Vilnius, Lithuania (since 2006)
  • Birmingham, United Kingdom (since 2006)
  • Hambantota, Sri Lanka (since 2007)
  • Recife, Brazil (since 2007)
  • Tampere, Finland (since 2008)
  • Bangkok, Thailand (since 2009)
  • Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia (since 2011)
  • Petaling Jaya, Malaysia (since 2012)
  • Rabat, Morocco (since 2013)
  • Bình Dương Province, Vietnam (since 2013)
  • Ahmedabad, India (since 2014)
  • Łódź, Poland (since 2014)
  • Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Ecatepec, Mexico (since 2016)[137][138][139][140]
  • Genova, Italy (since 2016)
  • Padova, Italy (since 2017)

Template:Div col end

Consulates General/consulates[]

Template:See alsoAs of October 2020, Guangzhou hosts 65 foreign consulates-general/consulates, excluding the Hong Kong and Macao trade office, making it one of the major cities to host more than 50 foreign representatives in China after Beijing and Shanghai.[12][13]

  • Angola
  • Argentina
  • Australia
  • Austria
  • Belarus
  • Belgium
  • Brazil
  • Cambodia
  • Canada
  • Chile
  • Colombia (consulate)
  • Republic of the Congo
  • Cuba
  • Denmark
  • Ecuador
  • Ethiopia
  • France
  • Germany
  • Ghana
  • Greece
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Iran
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Côte d'Ivoire
  • Japan
  • Korea
  • Kyrgyzstan
  • Kuwait
  • Laos
  • Malaysia
  • Mali
  • Mexico
  • Nepal
  • Netherlands
  • New Zealand
  • Nigeria
  • Norway
  • Pakistan
  • Panama
  • Peru
  • Philippines
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Qatar
  • Russia
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Senegal
  • Singapore
  • Spain (consulate)
  • Sri Lanka
  • Sudan
  • Switzerland
  • Thailand
  • Turkey
  • Uganda
  • Ukraine
  • United Arab Emirates
  • United Kingdom
  • United States
  • Uruguay
  • Venezuela
  • Vietnam
  • Zambia


Guangzhou Peninsula in Antarctica is named after the city, which was a major market and processing centre for the nineteenth-century Antarctic sealing industry.

See also[]

  • Canton System and Old China Trade
  • World's largest cities
  • Historical capitals of China
  • Mezitli Producer Women's Market#Guangzhou Innovation Award
  • 2021 Guangzhou bombing





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  • Fairbank, John King. Trade and Diplomacy on the China Coast: The Opening of the treaty ports, 1842-1854 (Cambridge, Harvard U. P, 1953) online.
  • Farris, Johnathan Andrew. Enclave to Urbanity: Canton, Foreigners, and Architecture from the Late Eighteenth to the Early Twentieth Centuries (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2016) online review Template:Webarchive
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Further reading[]

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  • Chan, May Caroline. "Canton, 1857." Victorian Review 36.1 (2010): 31–35. online
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  • Guangzhou Statistical Yearbook 2016

External links[]

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