Johor or Johore is a Malaysian state, located in the southern portion of Peninsular Malaysia. It is one of the most developed states in Malaysia. The state capital city of Johor is Johor Bahru. The royal city of the state is Muar and the old state capital is Johor Lama.
Johor is surrounded by Pahang to the north, Melaka and Negeri Sembilan to the northwest, and the Straits of Johor to the south, which separates Johor and the Republic of Singapore. The state also shares a maritime border with the Riau Archipelago from the east and Riau mainland on the west by the South China Sea and the Strait of Malacca respectively, both of Indonesian territories.
Johor is also known by its Arabic honorific, Darul Ta'zim, or "Abode of Dignity", and as Johore in English.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Population and demographics
- 4 Geography
- 5 Government and politics
- 6 Economy
- 7 Education
- 8 Hospitals
- 9 Transportation hubs
- 10 Media
- 11 Tourism
- 12 Culture
- 12.1 Clothing
- 12.2 Songs
- 12.3 Folk dances and music
- 12.4 Legends
- 12.5 Hamdolok
- 12.6 Cuisine
- 13 References
- 14 Bibliography
- 15 External links
Etymology[edit | edit source]
The name "Johor" originated from the Persian word Jauhar, 'gem/jewel'. Malays tend to name a place after natural objects in great abundance or having visual dominance. Before the name Johor was adopted, the area south of the Muar River to Singapore island was known as Ujong Tanah or 'land's end' in Malay, due to its location at the end of the Malay Peninsula. Coincidentally, Johor is the most southern point of the Asian continental mainland.
History[edit | edit source]
Template:Main article Template:See also In the early 16th century, the Sultanate of Johor was founded by the Alauddin Riayat Shah II, the son of Mahmud Shah, the last Sultan of Melaka who fled from the invading Portuguese in Melaka. Johor sultanate was one of the two successor states of the Melaka empire. On Malacca's defeat by the Portuguese in 1511, Alauddin Riayat Shah II established a monarchy in Johor, which posed a threat to the Portuguese. The Sultanate of Perak—established by Mahmud Shah's other son, Muzaffar Shah I—was the other successor state of Malacca. During Johor's peak, the whole of Pahang, present day Indonesian territories of the Riau archipelago, and part of Sumatra Island was under Johor's rule.
A series of succession struggles were interspersed with strategic alliances struck with regional clans and foreign powers, which maintained Johor's political and economic hold in the Straits. In competition with the Acehnese of northern Sumatra and the port-kingdom of Melaka under Portuguese rule, Johor engaged in prolonged warfare with their rivals, often striking alliances with friendly Malay states and with the Dutch.Template:Citation needed In 1641, Johor in co-operation with the Dutch succeeded in capturing Melaka. By 1660, Johor had become a flourishing entrepôt, although weakening and splintering of the empire in the late seventeenth and eighteenth century reduced its sovereignty.Template:Citation needed
In the 18th century, the Bugis of Sulawesi and the Minangkabau of Sumatra controlled the political powers in the Johor-Riau Empire.Template:Citation needed However, in the early 19th century, Malay and Bugis rivalry commanded the scene. In 1819, the Johor-Riau Empire was divided up into the mainland Johor, controlled by the Temenggong, and the Sultanate of Riau-Lingga, controlled by the Bugis.Template:Citation needed In 1855, under the terms of a treaty between the British in Singapore and Sultan Ali of Johor, control of the state was formally ceded to Dato' Temenggong Daing Ibrahim, with the exception of the Kesang area (Muar), which was handed over in 1877. Temenggong Ibrahim opened up Bandar Tanjung Puteri (later to become Johor's present-day capital) in south Johor as a major town.Template:Citation needed
Temenggong Ibrahim was succeeded by his son, Dato' Temenggong Abu Bakar, who later took the title Seri Maharaja Johor by Queen Victoria of England. In 1886, he was formally crowned the Sultan of Johor. Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor (1864–1895) implemented a state constitution, developed a British-style administration and constructed the Istana Besar, the official residence of the Sultan. For his achievements, Sultan Abu Bakar is known by the title "Father of Modern Johor".Template:Citation needed The increased demand for black pepper and gambier in the nineteenth century lead to the opening up of farmlands to the influx of Chinese immigrants, which created Johor's initial economic base. The Kangchu system was put in place with the first settlement of Kangkar Tebrau established in 1844. The decline of the Kangchu economy at the end of the 19th century coincided with the opening of the railway line connecting Johor Bahru and the Federated Malay States in 1909 and the emergence of rubber plantations throughout the state. Under the British Resident system, Sultan Ibrahim, Sultan Abu Bakar's successor, was forced to accept a British adviser in 1904. D.G. Campbell was dispatched as the first British adviser to Johor. From the 1910s to the 1940s, Johor emerged as Malaya's top rubber producing state, a position it has held until recently.Template:Citation needed Johor was also until recently the largest oil palm producer in Malaysia.Template:Citation needed
During World War II, Johor Bahru became the last city on the Malay peninsula to fall to the Japanese. Allied Forces, Australian, Malayan and Indian forces held out for four days in what was known as the Battle of Gemas, the General Yamashita Tomoyuki had his headquarters on top of Bukit Serene and coordinated the downfall of Singapore.
Johor gave birth to the Malay opposition that derailed the Malayan Union plan. Malays under Dato' Onn Jaafar's leadership formed the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) in Johor on 11 May 1946. (UMNO is currently the main component party of Malaysia's ruling Barisan Nasional coalition.) In 1948, Johor joined the Federation of Malaya, which gained Independence in 1957.
Population and demographics[edit | edit source]
Johor is Malaysia's second-most populous state with the nation's 3rd largest conurbation, the Iskandar Malaysia. Johor's geographical position in the southern of Peninsular Malaysia contributed to the state's rapid development as Malaysia's transportation and industrial hub. This creates jobs and attracted migrants from other states as well as overseas, especially from Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Myanmar, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and China. In recent decades, the influx of illegal immigrants, particularly from Indonesia, has further contributed to Johor's population.
Sub divisions of Johor
|1||22px||Johor Bahru||Johor Bahru||1,334,188|
|2||22px||Batu Pahat||Batu Pahat||401,902|
|6||22px||Kota Tinggi||Kota Tinggi||193,210|
Johor has the second-largest population in Malaysia at 3,230,440 as of 2010, which increase to 3,601,690 in 2016. The state's ethnic composition consists of Malay 51.2%, Chinese 33.5%, Indian 10.7%, other ethnic groups 0.1% and non-citizens 4.5%.
Ethnic breakdown[edit | edit source]
The following is based on Department of Statistics Malaysia 2015 figures.
|Ethnic groups in Johor, 2015|
Religion[edit | edit source]
Template:Bar box As of 2010, the population of Johor is 58.2% Muslim, 29.6% Buddhist, 6.6% Hindu, 3.3% Christian, 1.2% follower of other religions or unknown affiliations, 0.8% Taoist or Chinese religion adherent, and 0.3% non-religious.
The state religion of Johor being Islam was one of the stipulations in 1946 put on Malaya by Johor.
Language[edit | edit source]
The Johorean Malay, also known as Johor-Riau Malay and originally spoken in Johor, Riau, Melaka, Selangor and Singapore, has been adopted as the basis for both the Malaysian and Indonesian national languages, Malaysian and Indonesian, respectively. Due to Johor's location at the confluence of trade routes within Maritime Southeast Asia, as well as the former economic might and influence of Melaka and Johor, the dialect spread as the region's lingua franca since the 15th century; hence the adoption of the dialect as the basis for the national languages of Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. Several related languages are also spoken in the state such as Orang Seletar (spoken along the Straits of Johor as well as in northern Singapore), Orang Kanaq (spoken in small parts of southeastern Johor), Jakun (mostly inland parts of Johor), Temuan (near the border with Pahang and Negeri Sembilan) and Orang Kuala (at the northwest coast of Johor). Terengganu Malay, a distinct variant of Malay are spoken in the district of Mersing near the border with Rompin, Pahang.
Geography[edit | edit source]
It is the southernmost state in Peninsular Malaysia, and is located between the 1°20"N and 2°35"N latitudes. The highest point in Johor is Mount Ophir (1276 m). Johor also has a 400 km coastline on both the East and the West coasts.
Climate[edit | edit source]
Johor has a tropical rainforest climate with monsoon rain from November until February blowing from the South China Sea. The average annual rainfall is 1778 mm with average temperatures ranging between 25.5 °C (78 °F) and 27.8 °C (82 °F). Humidity is between 82 and 86%.
On 19 December 2006, a continuous heavy downpour occurred in Johor, which led to the 2006-2007 Malaysian floods. Many towns such as Muar, Kota Tinggi and Segamat were seriously flooded with water levels as high as Template:Convert above ground level recorded in some areas. 15 lives were lost and many possessions destroyed, and this resulted in huge financial losses in Johor. More than 100,000 victims were evacuated to flood relief centres.
Links to Singapore[edit | edit source]
Johor is linked to Singapore via two road connections: the Johor–Singapore Causeway and the Malaysia–Singapore Second Link. The Causeway also carries a railway line, which is now part of the main rail route linking Singapore with Thailand via Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh and Butterworth.
The Johor–Singapore Causeway (length: 1038 m) was designed by Messrs Coode, Fizmaurice, Wilson and Mitchell of Westminster, while the construction contract was awarded to Topham, Jones & Railton Ltd of London. Construction of the causeway started in 1919 and was completed in 1923.
It was preceded by a railway ferry link in 1903, which connected Johor to Singapore, then the administrative headquarters of British interests in South-East Asia. In 1909, this ferry link connected with the Johore State Railway, which opened that year between Johore Bharu and Gemas, providing a direct rail route with the rest of the Federated Malay States. Prior to 1909 travellers between Singapore and the Federated Malay States had to travel by sea between Singapore and Port Dickson.
The causeway has been a source of contention ever since Singapore seceded from Malaysia in 1965. Stagnating water caused by the Causeway has raised health concerns in Johor. Malaysia proposed to replace the causeway with a bridge, allowing water, tide movement and ship movement from Pasir Gudang, the older port in Johor to the new port in Gelang Patah through the Straits of Johor. Singapore rejected this proposal, after which Malaysia came up with the idea of what became known as "the crooked half-bridge", 25m above water level, and descending halfway to link up with the low-level causeway. The railway was to have a swing bridge. The scheme was part of the Gerbang Selatan Bersepadu project. It had been previously announced that the bridge project would go ahead, even without the agreement of the Singaporean government. The bridge would become a straight bridge if the Singaporean government accepted the project. Construction work on the bridge stopped, however, on the orders of the former Prime Minister, Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, who cited the unwillingness of Malaysia to sell sand and allow the use of Malaysian airspace by Singapore as a return for Singaporean consent to the bridge's construction.
Animosity between previous leaders of both countries has abated with the rise of new leaders, Abdullah Badawi as Malaysian Prime Minister replacing Mahathir Mohamad and Lee Hsien Loong in Singapore replacing Goh Chok Tong. It has renewed talks and improved relations between countries.
The second road connection, the Malaysia–Singapore Second Link, was completed in October 1997; the link consists of a 1920 m twin-deck bridge supporting a dual-three lane carriageway linking Kampong Ladang in Tanjung Kupang, Johor, to Jalan Ahmad Ibrahim in Tuas, Singapore.
Government and politics[edit | edit source]
Monarchy[edit | edit source]
Johor is a constitutional monarchy. Johor was the first state in Malaysia to adopt the constitutional monarchy system via Undang-undang Tubuh Negeri Johor (Johor State Constitution) written by Sultan Abu Bakar. The constitutional head of Johor is the Sultan. This hereditary position can only be held by a member of the Johor Royal Family, who is descended from Sultan Abu Bakar. Until 2010 the State's Sultan since 1981 had been Sultan Iskandar Al-Haj. He died 22 January 2010. Tunku Ibrahim Ismail Ibni Almarhum Sultan Iskandar was proclaimed as the new Sultan of Johor on 23 January 2010.Template:Citation needed
Johor was the first state and currently the only state in Malaysia that has its own military force called the Royal Johor Military Force or 'Timbalan Setia Negeri'. It is a private army of the Sultan of Johor located at Johor Bahru City.
State government[edit | edit source]
The state government is headed by a Chief Minister. The current Chief Minister is Dato' Mohamed Khaled Nordin of United Malays National Organisation. The Chief Minister is assisted by 10 members executive council (exco), whose members are selected from the state assembly members.
The legislative branch of Johor's government is the Johor State Legislative Assembly. The state assembly makes laws in matters regarding the state. Members of the Assembly are elected by citizens every five years by universal suffrage.
Districts[edit | edit source]
Johor is divided into ten districts of:
- Johor Bahru 1817.8 km², population 1,386,569 (2010)
- Majlis Bandaraya Johor Bahru (Abbreviation as MBJB or City Council of Johor Bahru. It includes areas of Johor Bahru City Centre, Taman Pelangi, Pasir Pelangi, Taman Rinting, Tasek Utara, Permas Jaya, Kangkar Tebrau, Kempas, Larkin, Majidee, Taman Mount Austin and Tebrau)
- Majlis Perbandaran Johor Bahru Tengah (MPJBT includes areas of Masai, Plentong, Ulu Tiram, Gelang Patah, Skudai, Pulai, Lima Kedai.)
- Majlis Perbandaran Pasir Gudang (MPPG includes areas of Pasir Gudang Industrial Estate, Taman Kota Masai, Taman Pasir Putih, Air Biru, Taman Tanjung Langsat, Taman Scientex, Taman Nusa Damai, Kampung Kong Kong, Kampung Sg. Tiram.)
- Kulai 753.45 km², population: 251,650 (2010)
- Majlis Perbandaran Kulai (previously known as Majlis Daerah Kulai) (Includes areas of Senai, Kulai Town, Sedenak, Ayer Bemban)
- Pontian 919.5 km², population: 155,541 (2010)
- Majlis Daerah Pontian
- Kota Tinggi 3488.7 km², population: 193,210 (2010)
- Majlis Daerah Kota Tinggi
- Kluang 2851.8 km², population: 298,332 (2010)
- Majlis Perbandaran Kluang (previously known as Majlis Daerah Kluang Utara)(Includes the capital district of Kluang, and most of the northern part of Kluang district)
- Majlis Daerah Simpang Renggam (previously known as Majlis Daerah Kluang Selatan)(Includes Simpang Renggam and most of the southern part of Kluang district
- Segamat 2851.26 km², population: 189,820 (2010)
- Majlis Daerah Segamat (Majlis Daerah Segamat Utara) (Includes areas of Jementah, Buloh Kasap, Batu Enam and Gemas Baharu)
- Majlis Daerah Labis (previously known as Majlis Daerah Segamat Selatan) (Includes areas of Tenang Station, Chaah, Bekok and Pekan Air Panas)
- Muar 2346.12 km², population: 247,957 (2010)
- Majlis Perbandaran Muar (previously known as Majlis Daerah Muar Selatan) (Includes areas of Bukit Pasir, Bukit Bakri, Parit Jawa, others)
- Tangkak 970.24 km², population: 136,852 (2010)
- Majlis Daerah Tangkak (previously known as Majlis Daerah Muar Utara)(Includes areas of Bukit Gambir, Sagil, Serom, Kesang, others)
- Batu Pahat 1878 km², population: 417,458 (2010)
- Majlis Perbandaran Batu Pahat (previously known as Majlis Daerah Batu Pahat Barat)(Includes most of the western part of the district, from Semerah in the north to western Rengit in the south, and the city of Batu Pahat,)
- Majlis Daerah Yong Peng (previously known as Majlis Daerah Batu Pahat Timur)(Includes the eastern part of Batu Pahat from Ayer Hitam in the south to Parit Sulong in the north)
- Mersing 2838.6 km², population: 70,894 (2010)
- Majlis Daerah Mersing
Economy[edit | edit source]
Iskandar Malaysia[edit | edit source]
The Iskandar, Johor (also known as Iskandar Development Region and South Johor Economic Region), encompassing Johor Bahru, Johor Bahru Tengah, Kulai, Pasir Gudang, Iskandar Puteri which is a major development zone in Johor with an area of 2,215 km² and Pontian (South). It was named after the late Sultan Iskandar Al-haj. It is intended to draw investment and business to Johor and will be among the biggest development projects in Malaysia. The state administrative capital will move to Iskandar Puteri. Residential areas include Bukit Indah and Horizon Hills townships.
Education[edit | edit source]
Johor has several institutions of higher learning. It has three public universities, namely Universiti Teknologi Malaysia situated in Skudai, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia in Parit Raja, Batu Pahat (UTHM), Universiti Teknologi MARA Johor (UiTM) in Segamat and UiTM City Campus in Johor Bahru and several polytechnics as an example Politeknik Ibrahim Sultan and Politeknik Mersing Johor. Johor also has two teaching colleges called IPG Kampus Temenggong Ibrahim in Johor Bahru and IPG Kampus Tun Hussien Onn in Batu Pahat. It has one non-profit community college called Southern University College situated in Skudai. Southern College was established in 1990 owing to the generous support from the communities. It is the first non-profit community college in the country wholly funded by public donation and is open to Malaysian students of all races.
Johor Education Foundation (Yayasan Pelajaran Johor) also establish tertiary education opportunity in Johor State. It offers studies from various field such as engineering, business, economics & hospitality for all Malaysian as well as qualified students from anywhere around the world. Currently, YPJ Education group is managing a 100-acre education complex in Kota Tinggi District as well as technical colleges in Ledang, Batu Pahat, Kluang and Kota Tinggi District.
The English College Johore Bahru, also known as Maktab Sultan Abu Bakar, abbreviated as English College, EC, MSAB, The College, and sometimes dubbed "The Pride of Johore", is among one of the premier historic schools in Malaysia.
At the primary level, Muslim Johorean students are required to attend Islamic religious school in addition to national school. Many Malay Johoreans have competent skills in Jawi script, the official script in Johor since 1885, which is still used in Islamic religious and Malay cultural matters.
As of 30 June 2008, there are 243 secondary schools in Johor educating 277,059 students. The total number of teachers in Johor at that time was 18212, which provided a teacher-student ratio of 15.21.
Public universities[edit | edit source]
|Official Name in Malay||Name in English||Acronym||Location|
|Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia||Tun Hussein Onn University of Malaysia||UTHM||Parit Raja|
|Universiti Teknologi Malaysia||University of Technology, Malaysia||UTM||Skudai|
|Universiti Teknologi MARA||MARA Technology University||UiTM||Segamat and Pasir Gudang|
Private universities and university colleges[edit | edit source]
|Official Name in Malay||Name in English||Acronym||Website||Location|
|Kolej Olympia||Olympia College||||Johor Bahru|
|Kolej Universiti Southern||Southern University College||SUC||||Skudai|
|Universiti Kuala Lumpur||Kuala Lumpur University||UniKL||||Masai|
|Institut Sains & Teknologi Darul Takzim||University Affiliated College||INSTEDT||||Kota Tinggi|
|Politeknik Ibrahim Sultan||Ibrahim Sultan Polytechnic||PIS||||Johor Bahru|
|Maktab Sultan Abu Bakar||English College Johore Bahru||EC||||Johor Bahru|
|Institut Teknologi Perindustrian YPJ||Institute of Industrial Technology||YPJ||||Johor Bahru|
|Kolej Aman||Aman College||||Batu Pahat|
|Kolej I-Systems||I-Systems College||INFORMATICS||||Johor Bahru|
|Kolej Yayasan Pelajaran Johor||YPJ College||KYPJ||||Kota Tinggi|
|Kolej Internasional Crescendo||Crescendo International College||CRESC||||Johor Bahru|
|Kolej Metropoint||Metropoint College||||Johor Bahru|
|Kolej Reliance||Reliance College||http://www.reliance.edu.my/||Johor Bahru|
|Kolej SAL||SAL Group of Colleges||SAL||||Johor Bahru|
|Kolej Sunway Johor Bahru||Sunway College Johor Bahru||SUNWAY||||Johor Bahru|
|Kolej Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman||Tunku Abdul Rahman University College||TARC||||Labis|
|Universiti Perubatan Antarabangsa||International Medical University||IMU||||Batu Pahat|
|Kolej Universiti Sains Kesihatan Masterskill||Masterskill University College of Health Sciences||MUCH||||Masai|
|Institut Latihan Perindustrian (ILP) Pasir Gudang||Pasir Gudang Industrial Training Institute||ILPPG||||Pasir Gudang|
|Universiti Perubatan Newcastle Malaysia||Newcastle University Medicine Malaysia||NUMM||||Johor Bahru|
|Universiti Southampton Kampus Malaysia||University of Southampton Malaysia Campus||USMC||||Johor Bahru|
|Universiti Raffles Iskandar||Raffles University Iskandar, Malaysia||RUI||||Johor Bahru|
Hospitals[edit | edit source]
There are public hospitals and private hospitals in Johor:
- Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Johor Bahru
- Hospital Sultanah Fatimah, Muar
- Hospital Sultanah Nora Ismail, Batu Pahat
- Hospital Enche' Besar Hajjah Khalsom, Kluang
- Hospital Segamat
- Hospital Pontian
- Hospital Kota Tinggi
- Hospital Mersing
- Hospital Tangkak
- Hospital Temenggung Seri Maharaja Tun Ibrahim, Kulai
- Hospital Permai
- Hospital Sultan Ismail
- Hospital Penawar, Pasir Gudang
- Hospital Pakar Johor, Johor Bahru
- Pantai Hospital Batu Pahat
- Putra Specialist Hospital Batu Pahat
- KPJ Specialist Hospital Muar
- Hospital Pakar Abdul Samad
- Columbia Asia
- KPJ Specialist Hospital Pasir Gudang
Transportation hubs[edit | edit source]
Ports[edit | edit source]
Airports[edit | edit source]
Johor has one international airport, the Senai International Airport in Senai. It was opened on 6 June 1974 and has been expanded several times since. Currently, it has a 5-million passenger capacity, with a parallel taxiway under construction.
Media[edit | edit source]
Television[edit | edit source]
Television in Johor consists of seven free-to-air stations. The TV stations are transmitted from Gunung Ledang, Johor (for North Johor area), Gunung Pulai, Johor (for Central and South Johor area) and Bukit Tinggi, Johor (for East Johor; TV1 and TV2 only).Three of the seven free-to-air stations are managed by Radio Televisyen Malaysia, a federal government-owned media company headquartered in Kuala Lumpur, while the four commercial stations are owned by Media Prima, an integrated media company headquartered in Bandar Utama, Selangor. In addition, Singapore TV channels transmitted from Bukit Batok—like MediaCorp Channel 5, MediaCorp Channel 8, MediaCorp Suria (South Johor only), MediaCorp Vasantham, MediaCorp Channel U (South Johor only), Okto and Channel News Asia—can be received in Central and South Johor.
- Radio Televisyen Malaysia (RTM)
- Media Prima
- Cable television
- Satellite television
- Astro (All Astro Plc)
Radio[edit | edit source]
Radio stations in Johor are available in the FM frequency and transmitted from Gunung Ledang, Johor (for North Johor area), Gunung Pulai, Johor (for Central and South Johor area) and Bukit Tinggi, Johor (for East Johor). Singapore radio stations like 883JiaFM (88.3 MHz), BBC World Service (88.9 MHz), Ria 89.7FM (89.7 MHz), Gold 90.5FM (90.5 MHz), One FM 91.3/Radio 91.3 (91.3 MHz), Kiss 92FM (92.0 MHz), Symphony 92.4FM (92.4 MHz), Y.E.S. 93.3FM (93.3 MHz), 938LIVE (93.8 MHz), Warna 94.2FM (94.2 MHz), Class 95FM (95.0 MHz), Capital 95.8FM (95.8 MHz), XFM 96.3 (96.3 MHz), Oli 96.8FM (96.8 MHz), Love 97.2FM (97.2 MHz), Power98FM (98.0 MHz), 987FM (98.7 MHz), Lush 99.5FM (99.5 MHz) and UFM 1003 (100.3 MHz; South Johor only) can be received in Central and South Johor (Batu Pahat, Kluang, Pontian, Kota Tinggi, Kulai and Johor Bahru).
Newspapers[edit | edit source]
Mainstream newspapers in Johor are:
- Berita Harian (in Bahasa Malaysia)
- Utusan Malaysia (in Bahasa Malaysia)
- Kosmo! (in Bahasa Malaysia)
- Harian Metro (in Bahasa Malaysia)
- Sinar Harian (in Bahasa Malaysia)
- New Straits Times (in English)
- The Star (in English)
- The Malay Mail (in English)
- The Sun (in English)
- Nanyang Siang Pau (in Mandarin)
- Sin Chew Daily (in Mandarin)
- China Press (in Mandarin)
- Malaysia Nanban (in Tamil)
- Tamil Nesan (in Tamil)
- Makkal Osai (in Tamil)
- Harakah (in Bahasa Malaysia and English). This newspaper is owned by the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party, one of the major party in the Pakatan Rakyat opposition in Johor.
- Suara Keadilan. This newspaper is owned by People's Justice Party, another major party in the Pakatan Rakyat opposition in Johor.
Tourism[edit | edit source]
Major tourist attractions[edit | edit source]
Among the popular tourist destinations in Johor are:
- Sultan Abu Bakar State Mosque constructed between 1892 and 1900
- Tebrau – Arulmigu Sri Rajakaliamman Glass Temple- The world's first Hindu glass temple
- Desaru – beaches & golf courses along the South China Sea
- Johor Bahru – shopping, night market, colonial/royal district
- Kota Tinggi 34-meter waterfall.
- Kukup – a fishing village with seafood restaurants built over water
- Muar – picturesque riverside town
- Seribuat Archipelago – islands with beautiful beaches, coral reefs
- Tanjung Piai – the southernmost tip of mainland Asia
- Danga Bay – waterfront city
- Pekan Air Panas – hot springs, waterfall, local fruits available
- Kota Iskandar – administration centre of Johor Government
- Pulau Dayang – major diving attraction, snorkelling, fishing
- Mount Ophir – legendary mountain/highest peak in South of Peninsula Malaysia, famous of mountain hiking
- Ayer Panas Waterfall – Malaysian "Jiu Zai Kou" with crystal clear water from the peak of Gunung Ledang
- Tangkak – hometown of famous "Tangkak Beef Noodle", shopping paradise for fabric, served best handmade noodle in the world
- Pulau Kukus – This island is close to Pulau Sibu Tengah and popular for snorkelling activity
- Tampoi Muniswaran Hindu Temple during Thaipusam
International theme parks[edit | edit source]
- Legoland Malaysia – The first of its kind theme park in Asia and the first international theme park in Malaysia
- Hello Kitty Town
National parks and forest reserves[edit | edit source]
Template:Main article Johor is also noted for its national parks. Johor currently has five national parks, with a combined area of more than 700 km² and several smaller recreational forest. Almost all recreational parks are based around a mountain. Johor also has the third-largest mangrove forest reserve in Peninsular Malaysia (167 km²).
- Tanjung Piai National Park – A natural wonderland at the southernmost tip of Asia
- Endau-Rompin National Park – The second National Park in Malaysia after Taman Negara, it covers an area of approximately 80,000 hectares
- Pulau Kukup Johor National Park – One of the largest uninhabited mangroves in the world, Pulau Kukup has been granted the status of a 'Wetland of International Importance' (RAMSAR site) by the Geneva-based Ramsar Convention Bureau.
Islands and beaches[edit | edit source]
- Pulau Sibu – A pleasant hideaway with its lush tropical vegetation, endless stretches of golden beaches and clear blue waters
- Pulau Rawa – Sixteen kilometres off the coast of Mersing, the island is famed for its white coral sand, tall palm trees and coral reefs with neon-coloured fish and other exotic marine life
- Desaru Beach – Among the best beaches in Johor, the beach is clean, lined with casuarina trees and stretch 25 kilometres long
- Pulau Aur – Rated among the best diving destinations within the Johor Marine Park Area
Mausoleum of Sultan Mahmud Mangkat Dijulang[edit | edit source]
Culture[edit | edit source]
The culture of Johor is influenced by visitors and traders throughout history. A major influence was the Bugis – who first set foot in Malaysia in Johor before continuing on to Melaka, Linggi, Selangor, Pahang and Terengganu – Javanese and the Arabs. They had a powerful effect on the politics of Johor, Pahang, Terengganu and Selangor. The strong Arab influence is apparent in art performances like Zapin and Hamdolok, musical instruments like gambus. Other visible legacies in Johor Bahru are the Arabic names of places such as Wadi Hana and Wadi Hassan in areas populated by the Arab community from Hadhramaut in the southeast of Yemen. Wadi means valley in Arabic.
Clothing[edit | edit source]
- Cekak Musang and Teluk Belanga are types of collar design for the male garment 'baju melayu'. It is said that Teluk Belanga was designed by Sultan Abu Bakar in 1866 to commemorate the shift of Johor's capital from Teluk Belanga to Johor Bahru. The Teluk Belanga design is a simple hemmed round collar with a stiff stitching called 'tulang belut' or 'eel's spine', with a loop at the end to fit a 'kancing'. This collar design creates an exposed neck in contrast to the neck-covering Cekak Musang design that is a raised stiff collar of about 1–2 cm with an opening down to the chest. The collar ends have matching holes to fit buttons.
- Kurung Johor
- Kurung Riau
- Belah kebaya panjang
Songs[edit | edit source]
Template:Unreferenced section Tanjung Puteri is the song most commonly associated with Johor.
Tajuk Johor Tanjung Puteri
Selat Tebrau airnya biru
Di Pantai Lido tepian mandi
Sepanjang masa di hari minggu
Atas bukit Tanjung Puteri
Taman hiburan indah berseri
Pemandangan menawan hati
Jalan tambak hubungan negeri
Tanjung Sekijang nun di kuala
Tempat nelayan mengail gelama
Istana Hinggap di Kuala Danga
Pantai berkelah keluarga diRaja
Dari Tebrau orang berakit
Singgah Setulang membeli kopi
Pusara si Bongkok di lereng bukit
Di tepi pantai Tanjung Puteri
Folk dances and music[edit | edit source]
Zapin dance[edit | edit source]
Template:Main article Zapin is a dance form popular in Malaysia, especially in the state of Johor. It is believed to have been introduced by Muslim missionaries from the Middle East in the 14th century. In the old days, only males were allowed to perform it, but it now includes female dancers. It was once performed exclusively for religious ceremonies, but has become a traditional entertainment. The dancers usually perform in pairs, accompanied by a traditional music ensemble that typically consists of the gambus, accordion, violin, marwas (bongos), rebana (drum), and dok. There are various types of zapin—including zapin melayu, zapin pekajang, zapin tenglu, zapin pulau, zapin parit mastar, and zapin lenga.
Kuda Kepang[edit | edit source]
Template:Main article Kuda kepang is a dance or game performed by Johoreans, especially of Javanese descent. Kuda kepang is a legless horse-shaped puppet that is straddled by the performers. Usually, a troupe of performers consists of 10 to 15 people. It is performed at wedding ceremonies and cultural celebrations. There are several possible origins of kuda kepang. It is said to derive from the struggles of Wali Songo, a group of nine Islamic preachers in Java. Others think it originated from the movement of horses commanded by Ali, the fourth Muslim Caliph. There are several dance rhythms or patterns: the sola, Sselendang, pak tani, pucuk rebung, perjuangan, and mempertahankan diri. The bobbing movement of the performers and their horse puppet is called lenggang kiprah.
The musical instruments used in kuda kepang performance are angklong, gendang, gong, kinong, jidor, soron kecil and bonang.
Legends[edit | edit source]
Legend of Badang[edit | edit source]
This is a story of Badang, a slave who gained super human strength by eating the vomit of a river spirit. He used this to win his freedom. Contrary to popular belief, Badang was born in Sayong Pinang, Johor. Upon hearing his strength, he was summoned by the Seri Rama Wira Kerma of Temasik where he displayed his skills. Challengers were sent by foreign kingdoms to defeat him. Among them were King of Kalinga I from India who sent Nadi Bijaya Pikrama, a fierce wrestler, and the noblemen of Perlak who sent Benderang. Badang emerged victorious from both fights and eventually stayed in Temasik until his death.
Legend of Malim Deman[edit | edit source]
According to legend, Malim Deman was a king in Segamat who was in love with Princess Santan Bertapis. The princess was kidnapped by a spirit and Malim Deman swore that as long as the princess is not returned, the Segamat area shall experience floods for all eternity. However, with modern town planning and irrigation, flooding is now a rare occurrence in Segamat.
Legend of Gunung Ledang[edit | edit source]
Awang's spear returned to Dayang[edit | edit source]
Lembing Awang Pulang ke Dayang (Awang's spear Returned to Dayang) is an incident that occurred in Parit Raja, Muar.
It occurred in 1776 when a man called Awang returned to Padang (now known as Parit Raja, Muar) after more than 3 years abroad to marry his fiancée Dayang. Upon his return, he found out that another man called Bachok at Pa'achok had told Dayang of Awang's death and she was to be married to him the next day. Awang showed up at the wedding and using a twin spear given by Raja Bugis, he speared Bachok in the stomach. Bachok, fatally injured, grabbed the spear in his stomach and speared his best man. The man then speared the next man he saw and this was repeated until the 99th person was speared. It was Dayang's father who was protecting Dayang. He did not continue the repeated spearing and died. Awang ran away to Endau and Dayang did not marry another until she died.
Black Tongue Warrior[edit | edit source]
Panglima Lidah Hitam (the Black Tongue Warrior) is a legendary warrior in Johor state.
Hamdolok[edit | edit source]
Hamdolok originated from the exposure of Middle Eastern culture introduced by Arabs in Johor. It is a traditional theatre performed during weddings and festivals. It is a blend of artistic characters of both the Middle East and local Malay communities. Instruments used include the gambus, tambourine, maracas and conga drums. It was also inspired by the Bedouin celebrating the birth of Islamic prophet Muhammad playing musical instruments and reciting poetry.
Cuisine[edit | edit source]
Cuisine in Johor is influenced by Arabs and cultures of the surrounding Maritime Southeast Asia.Template:Citation needed Some dishes are a blend of ingredients not found anywhere else in Malaysia. Due to their difficult and sometimes complicated recipes, some can only be sampled during celebrations and state banquets.Template:Citation needed
- Laksa Johor is from Johor. It differs from Laksa Penang by having coconut milk added during cooking. It also differs from other laksas by using spaghetti instead of rice-based noodles.
- Mee Bandung Muar is also a dish originated from Johor, specifically from Muar. The term 'bandung' is not derived from Bandung, Indonesia but is a term for anything that is mixed from many ingredients. One of the most important ingredient is dried shrimp.
- Penganan Kacau keledek is a dessert normally reserved for the Johor monarch and elites. It is made from sweet potatoes, a lot of eggs (at least 40), fresh coconut milk (not instant ones) and huge amounts of sugar. It is mixed together and stirred on a simmering heat for at least 4 hours.
- Mee rebus is a noodle dish that consists of Mee (a spaghetti like mixture of flour, salt and egg) and is served with a tangy, spicy brown sauce. Usually crumbs and boiled eggs are added.
- Arisa – A unique chicken dish that is very rare nowadays, and is normally served to the royalties and social elites of Johor at formal functions and celebrations.
- Satay – is a popular food in Malaysia. Made from marinated meat or chicken and burnt on charcoal grill. Cooked satay is dipped in special peanut sauce. A favourite Malay food in Johor, mostly found in Johor Bahru and Muar.
- Telur pindang – Eggs boiled together with herbs and spices, popular during wedding feasts in Johor.
- Roti Jala or Roti Kirai – The name is derived from the Malay word 'roti' (bread) and 'jala' (net). A special ladle with a five-hole perforation used to make the bread looks like a fish net (picture in the works). It is usually eaten spicy with curry or sweet with 'serawa'. Serawa is made from a mixture of boiled coconut milk, brown sugar and pandan leaf.
- Nasi Beriani Gam – A biryani rice dish originating from India with a cooking method very similar to Hyderabad Biryani but with spices adjusted to suit the Malay palate. This dish is very popular in Batu Pahat District.
- Ikan masak asam pedas – A sour stew of fish (usually mackerel), tamarind, chili, tomatoes, okra and Vietnamese coriander (Template:Lang-ms)
- Kacang Pol- This dish is influenced by Arab Culture where special baked bread was served with special sauce and a 'sunny side up' egg.
- Pisang Salai or Gimpi smoked banana cooked into perfection
- Otak-otak – Steamed/Grilled fish cake usually served wrapped in sticks of coconut leaves. Two of the most popular varieties are Otak-otak Muar (spicy) and Otak-otak Gelang Patah (sweet).
- Mee Soto – This Indonesian origin food is very popular in Johor. People may have change noodles with rice or vermicelli rice according to their preference. Combination of either noodle, rice or vermicelli rice is added with peanut, beansprout and chicken meat. These combination then is poured with special soup. This soup was made from chicken stock and some other spice. Enjoy it while its hot.
- Mee Bakso is almost identical to soto, but with meatballs instead of slices of chicken.
- Lontongis a combination of pressed rice and coconut soup with vegetables, served with boiled egg and chili.
- Burasak is a type of Buginese food.
- Halwa Maskat is a dessert that may have originated in Mascat, Oman.
- Kerutup ikan is fish is steamed with a variety of local fragrant leaves.
- Pecal is a Javanese traditional cuisine made from long beans, slices of cucumber, beansprouts, tauhu, tempe mix, and a peanut sauce.
- Tauhu bakar is made from soybean burnt on a grill and cut into cubes and dipped in a sauce.
- Mee Siput is a mixture of flour that expands in size when deep fried.
- Rojak Petis is a combination of local vegetables mixed with black sauce made mostly from shrimp(Otak Udang).
- ABC – ABC is an abbreviation for air batu campur, also known as Ice Kacang Johor. It is a special dessert created from shaved ice with corn, jelly, redbeans, groundnut, syrup, pasteurised milk, and chocolate syrup.
Javanese-influenced cuisine[edit | edit source]
There are a few Johorean dishes with Javanese influences due to the high number of Javanese settlers in the state. These include lontong, nasi ambeng, satay and bontrot or berkat – both traditionally served after feasts like wedding ceremonies, Yasinan and others; and ungkep.
References[edit | edit source]
-  Template:Webarchive
- Ancient names of Johor, 2 March 2009, JohorBuzz, New Straits Times
- Template:Cite book
- Template:Cite journal
- Roads to fame, Fauziah Ismail, Johor Buzz, New Straits Times
- Ancient temple steeped in history, Peggy Loh, JohorBuzz, New Straits Times
- Template:Cite web
- Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; no text was provided for refs named
- Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; no text was provided for refs named
- Template:Cite news
- Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; no text was provided for refs named
- Template:Cite web
- Template:Cite news
- An army of its own, Fauziah Ismail, JohorBuzz, New Straits Times
- About Southern College, Message from the Executive Advisor, retrieved 21 February 2009
-  Template:Webarchive
- Template:Cite web
- Template:Cite web
- Template:Cite web
- Template:Cite web
- Template:Cite web
- Template:Cite web
- Template:Cite web
- Template:Cite web
- Folk dance with religious origin, 14 April 2005, Peggy Loh, Travel Times, New Straits Times
- Kenali Gaya: Mata lalat, tulang belut bezakan baju Melayu, Berita Harian Online, September 2008
- Little touches for unique dishes, GEETHA KRISHNAN, 26 June 2006, The Star
- Hidangan dan Masakan Johor, 11 December 2006, Official Portal of the Johor State Government
Bibliography[edit | edit source]
- Andaya, Leonard Y., "The Kingdom of Johor 1641–1728: Economic and Political Developments", Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1975.
- Borschberg, Peter, "The Seizure of the Santa Catarina Revisited: The Portuguese Empire in Asia, VOC Politics and the Origins of the Dutch-Johor Alliance (c. 1602–1616)", Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 33.1 (2002): 31–62. (This article can be downloaded free of charge at www.cambride.org, Template:Doi)
- Borschberg, Peter, "The Singapore and Melaka Straits: Violence, Security and Diplomacy in the Seventeenth Century", Singapore: NUS Press, 2010. Template:ISBN. https://www.academia.edu/4302722
- Borschberg, Peter, "Hugo Grotius, the Portuguese and Free Trade in the East Indies", Singapore: NUS Press, 2011. Template:ISBN. https://www.academia.edu/4302729
- Borschberg, Peter, "Journal, Memorial and Letters of Cornelis Matelieff de Jonge. Security, Diplomacy and Commerce in 17th-Century Southeast Asia", Singapore: NUS Press, 2015. Template:ISBN. https://www.academia.edu/4302783
- Borschberg, Peter, "Jacques de Coutre's Singapore and Johor, 1595-c.1625", Singapore: NUS Press, 2015. Template:ISBN. https://www.academia.edu/9672124
- Borschberg, Peter, "The value of Admiral Matelieff's writings for the history of Southeast Asia, c.1600-1620", Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 48(3), pp. 414-435. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S002246341700056X
- Trocki, Carl A., Prince of Pirates: the Temenggongs and the Development of Johor and Singapore, 1784–1885, University of Hawaii Press, 1979, Template:ISBN
- Winstedt, Richard O., “A History of Johore”, Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 10.3 (1932): 1–167. (Available in various MBRAS reprints).
[edit | edit source]
- Johor Government Website
- Johor Chief Minister Office Official Website
- Johor Chief Minister Office Official Website, Media and Communication Unit(MedKom)
- Tourism Johor
- Johor travel guide written and maintained by locals
- Johor Community
- My Far East, Johor – Malaysia
- History of the Johor Empire
- Faculty of Built Environment, UTM, Skudai, Johor
- Tourism Malaysia – Johor