The Singapore LGBT encyclopaedia Wiki
Advertisement

Secularity (derived from the word secular which comes from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years)[1]Template:Sfn is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.[2]

Historically, the word secular was not related or linked to religion, but was a freestanding term in Latin which would relate to any mundane endeavour.Template:Sfn However, the term, saecula saeculorum (saeculōrum being the genitive plural of saeculum) as found in the New Testament in the Vulgate translation (circa 410) of the original Koine Greek phrase Template:Lang (eis toùs aionas ton aiṓnōn), e.g. at Galatians 1:5, was used in the early Christian church (and is still used today), in the doxologies, to denote the coming and going of the ages, the grant of eternal life, and the long duration of created things from their beginning to forever and ever.[3]

The idea of a dichotomy between religion and the secular originated in the European Enlightenment.Template:Sfn Furthermore, since religion and secular are both Western concepts that were formed under the influence of Christian theology, other cultures do not necessarily have words or concepts that resemble or are equivalent to them.Template:Sfnm

In many cultures, "little conceptual or practical distinction is made between 'natural' and 'supernatural' phenomena" and the very notions of religious and nonreligious dissolve into unimportance,Template:Sfn nonexistence, or unawareness, especially since people have beliefs in other supernatural or spiritual things irrespective of belief in God or gods.

Conceptions of what is and what is not religion vary in contemporary East Asia as well. The shared term for "irreligion" or "no religion" (無宗教, Chinese pron. wú zōngjiào, Japanese pron. mu shūkyō) with which the majority of East Asian populations identify themselves implies non-membership in one of the institutional religions (such as Buddhism and Christianity) but not necessarily non-belief in traditional folk religions collectively represented by Chinese Shendao (shén dào) and Japanese Shinto (both meaning "ways of gods").[4]Template:EfnTemplate:Sfn

In modern Japan, religion has negative connotation since it is associated with foreign belief systems so many identify as "nonreligious" (mushukyo), but this does not mean they have a complete rejection or absence of beliefs and rituals relating to supernatural, metaphysical, or spiritual things.Template:Sfn In the Meiji era, the Japanese government consciously excluded Shinto from the category of religion in order to enforce State Shinto while asserting their state followed American-mandated requirements for freedom of religion; this has fed into the contemporary Japanese experience of "secularity" as well as the government's regulation of religious beliefs and institutions from the Meiji era into the present day.[5]

One can regard eating and bathing as examples of secular activities, because there may not be anything inherently religious about them. Nevertheless, some religious traditions see both eating and bathing as sacraments, therefore making them religious activities within those world views. Saying a prayer derived from religious text or doctrine, worshipping through the context of a religion, performing corporal and spiritual works of mercy, and attending a religious seminary school or monastery are examples of religious (non-secular) activities.

The "secular" is experienced in diverse ways ranging from separation of religion and state to being anti-religion or even pro-religion, depending on the culture.Template:Sfn For example, the United States has both separation of church and state and pro-religiosity in various forms such as protection of religious freedoms; France has separation of church and state (and Revolutionary France was strongly anti-religious); the Soviet Union was anti-religion; in India, people feel comfortable identifying as secular while participating in religion; and in Japan, since the concept of "religion" is not indigenous to Japan, people state they have no religion while doing what appears to be religion to Western eyes.Template:Sfn

A related term, secularism, involves the principle that government institutions and their representatives should remain separate from religious institutions, their beliefs, and their dignitaries.Template:Citation needed Many businesses and corporations, and some governments operate on secular lines. This stands in contrast to theocracy, government with deity as its highest authority.

Etymology and definitions[]

Secular and secularity derive from the Latin word saeculum which meant "of a generation, belonging to an age" or denoted a period of about one hundred years.Template:Sfn In the ancient world, saeculum was not defined in contrast to any sacred concerns and had a freestanding usage in Latin.Template:Sfn It was in Christian Latin of medieval times, that saeculum was used for distinguishing this temporal age of the world from the eternal realm of God.Template:Sfn The Christian doctrine that God exists outside time led medieval Western culture to use secular to indicate separation from specifically religious affairs and involvement in temporal ones.

This does not necessarily imply hostility to God or religion, though some use the term this way (see "secularism", below); Martin Luther used to speak of "secular work" as a vocation from God for most Christians.Template:Citation needed According to cultural anthropologists such as Jack David Eller, secularity is best understood, not as being "anti-religious", but as being "religiously neutral" since many activities in religious bodies are secular themselves and most versions of secularity do not lead to irreligiosity.Template:Sfn

Secularization[]

Template:Further According to the anthropologist Jack David Eller's review of secularity, he observes that secularization is very diverse and can vary by degree and kind. He notes the sociologist Peter Glasner's ten institutional, normative, or cognitive processes for secularization as:[6] Template:Quote

Modern usage[]

Examples of secular used in this way include:

  • Secular authority, which involves legal, police, and military authority, as distinct from clerical authority, or matters under church control.
  • Secular clergy in the Roman Catholic Church, who, traditionally, do not live the monastic lives of the regular clergy and are therefore, in a sense, more engaged with the temporal world. For a related Roman Catholic reference, see secular institute.
  • Secular education, schools that are not run by churches, mosques, or other religious organizations.
  • Secular states with secular governments that follow civil laws—as distinct from religious authorities like the Islamic Sharia, Catholic Canon law, or Jewish Halakha—and that do not favour or disfavour any particular religion.
  • Secular Jewish culture, cultural manifestations of Jewishness that are not specifically religious.
  • Secular music, composed for general use, as distinct from sacred music which is composed for church use. Secular sonatas, in the 17th century, were those not composed for church services.
  • Secular Organizations for Sobriety, a secular alternative to the Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) organization which is a loosely religious one although nondenominational.
  • Secular society refers to aspects of society that are not mosque-, church-, synagogue-, or temple-affiliated.
  • Secular spirituality, the pursuit of spirituality without a formal affiliation with a church, or other religious organization, or the pursuit of spirituality specifically in the context of temporal affairs.
  • Secular peers, in reference to the Peers of the House of Lords that are not connected to the Church.
  • Secular humanism

Related concepts[]

File:Beirut protest.jpg

A laïcité parade in Beirut Central District, Lebanon (see Secularism in Lebanon)

  • Secularism is an assertion or belief that religious issues should not be the basis of politics, and it is a movement that promotes those ideas (or an ideology) which hold that religion has no place in public life. French frequently uses Template:Lang as an equivalent idiom for Template:Lang. Secularist organizations are distinguished from merely secular ones by their political advocacy of such positions.
  • Template:Lang is the French word that most resembles secularism, especially in the latter's extreme definition, as it is understood by the Catholic Church, which sets Template:Lang in opposition to the allegedly far milder concept of Template:Lang. The correspondent word laicism (also spelled laïcism) is sometimes used in English as a synonym for secularism.
  • Template:Lang is a French concept related to the separation of state and religion, sometimes rendered by the English cognate neologism laicity and also translated by the words secularity and secularization. The word Template:Lang is sometimes characterized as having no exact English equivalent; it is similar to the more moderate definition of secularism, but is not as ambiguous as that word.

Education[]

All of the state universities in the United States are secular organizations (especially because of the combined effect of the First and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution) while some private universities are connected with the Christian or Jewish religions such as Boston College, Emory University, the University of Notre Dame, Wheaton College and Yeshiva College. Other universities started as being religiously affiliated but have become more secular as time went on such as Harvard University and Yale University. The public university systems of the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Colombia, India, and Japan are also secular, although some government-funded primary and secondary schools may be religiously aligned in some countries. Exactly what is meant by religious affiliation is a complex and contested issue since the ways in which religious identity is framed is not consistent across different religious and cultural traditions.Template:SfnTemplate:Page needed

See also[]

Template:Portal Template:Col div

  • Anti-clericalism
  • Islam and secularism
  • Nonsectarian
  • Postsecularism
  • Secular state
  • State religion

Template:Colend

Notes[]

Template:Notelist

References[]

Footnotes[]

  1. Template:Cite web
  2. Template:Cite web
  3. Template:Cite web
  4. LeFebvre, J. (2015). Christian wedding ceremonies: “Nonreligiousness” in contemporary Japan. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 42(2), 185-203. http://nirc.nanzan-u.ac.jp/nfile/4454
  5. Template:Cite book
  6. Template:Harvnb. See also Template:Harvnb.

Bibliography[]

Template:Refbegin

Template:Cite book
Template:Cite book
Template:Cite book
Template:Cite book
Template:Cite book
Template:Cite book
Template:Cite book
Template:Cite book
Template:Cite book

Template:Refend

Further reading[]

Template:Refbegin

Template:Cite encyclopedia
Template:Cite book
Template:Cite book
Template:Cite book
Template:Cite book

Template:Refend

External links[]

  • Template:Wiktionary inline
Advertisement