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'''''Time''''' is an American [[Weekly newspaper|weekly]] [[news magazine]] and [[news website]] published and based in [[New York City]]. It was first published in New York City on March 3, 1923, and for many years it was run by its influential co-founder [[Henry Luce]]. A European edition (''Time Europe'', formerly known as ''Time Atlantic'') is published in [[London]] and also covers the [[Middle East]], [[Africa]], and, since 2003, [[Latin America]]. An Asian edition (''Time Asia'') is based in [[Hong Kong]].<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.hktdc.com/sourcing/hk_company_directory.htm?companyid=1X0A9RSZ|title=Time Asia (Hong Kong) Limited - Buying Office, Service Company, Distributor from Hong Kong {{!}} HKTDC|website=www.hktdc.com|access-date=2020-01-14}}</ref> The South Pacific edition, which covers [[Australia]], [[New Zealand]], and the [[Pacific Islands]], is based in [[Sydney]]. In December 2008, ''Time'' discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mastheadonline.com/news/2008/20081210942.shtml |title=Time Canada to close |work=Mastheadonline.com |date=December 10, 2008 |accessdate=September 6, 2011}}</ref>
'''''Time''''' is an American weekly [[news magazine]] published in [[New York City]]. It was founded in 1923 and for decades was dominated by [[Henry Luce]], who built a highly profitable stable of magazines.
 
   
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As of 2012, ''Time'' had a circulation of 3.3&nbsp;million, making it the 11th-most circulated magazine in the United States, and the second-most circulated weekly behind ''[[People (magazine)|People]]'' In July 2017, its circulation was 3,028,013; this was cut down to 2&nbsp;million by late 2017. The print edition has a readership of 26&nbsp;million, 20&nbsp;million of whom are based in the United States. {{Citation needed|date=September 2020}}
A European edition (''Time Europe'', formerly known as ''Time Atlantic'') is published in London and also covers the Middle East, Africa and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition (''Time Asia'') is based in [[Hong Kong]]. The South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand and the [[Pacific Islands]], is based in [[Sydney]], Australia. In December 2008, ''Time'' discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition.<ref>{{cite web |url= http://www.mastheadonline.com/news/2008/20081210942.shtml |title=Time Canada to close |work=mastheadonline.com |date=December 10, 2008 |accessdate=September 6, 2011}}</ref>
 
   
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Formerly published by New York City-based [[Time Inc.]], since November 2018 ''Time'' has been published by TIME USA, LLC, owned by [[Marc Benioff]], who acquired it from [[Meredith Corporation]].
''Time'' has the world's largest circulation for a weekly news magazine, and has a readership of 26 million, 20 million of which are based in the United States.
 
 
In mid-2016, its circulation was 3,032,581,<ref name=AllianceAuditedMedia/> having fallen from 3.3 million in 2012.<ref name=Politico>Byers, Dylan (August 7, 2012). [http://www.politico.com/blogs/media/2012/08/time-magazine-still-on-top-in-circulation-131349.html "Time Magazine still on top in circulation"]. [[Politico]].</ref>
 
 
[[Richard Stengel]] was the managing editor from May 2006 to October 2013, when he joined the [[United States Department of State|U.S. State Department]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Richard Stengel|url=http://www.timemediakit.com/us/media/bios/stengel.html|work=TIME Media Kit|publisher=Time Inc|accessdate=22 August 2012|author=Time Inc|date=30 July 2012}}</ref><ref name="WWD">{{cite web | url=http://www.wwd.com/media-news/publishing/nancy-gibbs-named-times-managing-editor-7162968?src=nl/newsAlert/20130917-5 | title=Nancy Gibbs Named Time's Managing Editor | publisher=WWD | date=17 September 2013 | accessdate=17 September 2013 | author=Maza, Erik}}</ref> [[Nancy Gibbs]] has been the managing editor since October 2013.<ref name="WWD"/>
 
   
 
==History==
 
==History==
 
[[File:Time Magazine - first cover.jpg|thumb|right|The first issue of ''Time'' (March 3, 1923), featuring [[Speaker of the United States House of Representatives|Speaker]] [[Joseph Gurney Cannon|Joseph G. Cannon]].]]
 
[[File:Time Magazine - first cover.jpg|thumb|right|The first issue of ''Time'' (March 3, 1923), featuring [[Speaker of the United States House of Representatives|Speaker]] [[Joseph Gurney Cannon|Joseph G. Cannon]].]]
''Time'' magazine was created in 1923 by [[Briton Hadden]] and [[Henry Luce]], making it the first weekly news magazine in the United States.<ref name="History of TIME">{{cite news|url=http://www.time.com/time/archive/collections/0,21428,c_time_history,00.shtml|title=History of TIME|work=TIME magazine}}</ref> The two had previously worked together as chairman and managing editor respectively of the ''[[Yale Daily News]].'' They first called the proposed magazine ''Facts''. They wanted to emphasize brevity, so that a busy man could read it in an hour. They changed the name to ''Time'' and used the slogan "Take Time–It's Brief".<ref>Brinkley, ''The Publisher'', pp 88–89</ref> Hadden was considered carefree and liked to tease Luce and saw ''Time'' as important but also fun, which accounted for its heavy coverage of celebrities (including politicians), the entertainment industry, and pop culture—criticized as too light for serious news.
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Since its debut in [[New York City]] on March 3, 1923, ''Time'' magazine was first published based in New York City by [[Briton Hadden]] and [[Henry Luce]], making it the first weekly news magazine in the United States.<ref name="History of TIME">{{cite news|url=http://www.time.com/time/archive/collections/0,21428,c_time_history,00.shtml|title=History of TIME|work=Time}}</ref> The two had previously worked together as chairman and managing editor, respectively, of the ''[[Yale Daily News]].'' They first called the proposed magazine ''Facts''. They wanted to emphasize brevity, so that a busy man could read it in an hour. They changed the name to ''Time'' and used the slogan "Take Time&nbsp;– It's Brief".<ref>Brinkley, ''The Publisher'', pp 88–89</ref> Hadden was considered carefree and liked to tease Luce. He saw ''Time'' as important, but also fun, which accounted for its heavy coverage of celebrities and politicians, the entertainment industry and pop culture, criticizing it as too light for serious news.
   
It set out to tell the news through people, and for many decades the magazine's cover depicted a single person. More recently, Time has incorporated "People of the Year" issues which grew in popularity over the years. Notable mentions of them were Barack Obama, Steve Jobs, Matej Turk, etc. The first issue of ''Time'' was published on March 3, 1923, featuring [[Joseph Gurney Cannon|Joseph G. Cannon]], the retired [[Speaker of the United States House of Representatives|Speaker of the House of Representatives]], on its cover; a facsimile reprint of Issue No. 1, including all of the articles and advertisements contained in the original, was included with copies of the February 28, 1938 issue as a commemoration of the magazine's 15th anniversary.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.brycezabel.com/instanthistory/2006/03/time_magazine_f.html |title=Instant History: Review of First Issue with Cover |publisher=Brycezabel.com |date=1923-03-03 |accessdate=2014-01-26}}</ref> The cover price was 15¢ (equivalent to ${{Inflation|US|0.15|1923|r=2|fmt=c}} today) On Hadden's death in 1929, Luce became the dominant man at ''Time'' and a major figure in the history of 20th-century media. According to ''Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1972–2004'' by Robert Elson, "[[Roy Edward Larsen]] [...] was to play a role second only to Luce's in the development of Time Inc". In his book, ''[[The March of Time]], 1935–1951'', Raymond Fielding also noted that Larsen was "originally circulation manager and then general manager of ''Time'', later publisher of ''[[Life (magazine)|Life]]'', for many years president of Time Inc., and in the long history of the corporation the most influential and important figure after Luce".{{citation needed|date=May 2015}}
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It set out to tell the news through people, and for many decades through the late 1960s, the magazine's cover depicted a single person. More recently, ''Time'' has incorporated "People of the Year" issues which grew in popularity over the years. Notable mentions of them were Barack Obama, Steve Jobs, etc. The first issue of ''Time'' was published on March 3, 1923, featuring [[Joseph Gurney Cannon|Joseph G. Cannon]], the retired [[Speaker of the United States House of Representatives|Speaker of the House of Representatives]], on its cover; a facsimile reprint of Issue No. 1, including all of the articles and advertisements contained in the original, was included with copies of the February 28, 1938 issue as a commemoration of the magazine's 15th anniversary.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.brycezabel.com/instanthistory/2006/03/time_magazine_f.html |title=Instant History: Review of First Issue with Cover |publisher=Brycezabel.com |date=March 3, 1923 |accessdate=January 26, 2014}}</ref> The cover price was 15¢ (equivalent to ${{Inflation|US|0.15|1923|r=2|fmt=c}} in {{Inflation-year|US}}). On Hadden's death in 1929, Luce became the dominant man at ''Time'' and a major figure in the history of 20th-century media. According to ''Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1972–2004'' by Robert Elson, "[[Roy Edward Larsen]] [...] was to play a role second only to Luce's in the development of Time Inc". In his book, ''[[The March of Time]], 1935–1951'', Raymond Fielding also noted that Larsen was "originally circulation manager and then general manager of ''Time'', later publisher of ''[[Life (magazine)|Life]]'', for many years president of Time Inc., and in the long history of the corporation the most influential and important figure after Luce".{{citation needed|date=May 2015}}
   
Around the time they were raising $100,000 from wealthy [[Yale]] alumni like Henry P. Davison, partner of [[J.P. Morgan & Co.]], publicity man Martin Egan and J.P. Morgan & Co. banker Dwight Morrow, Henry Luce, and Briton Hadden hired Larsen in 1922&nbsp;– although Larsen was a [[Harvard University|Harvard]] graduate and Luce and Hadden were Yale graduates. After Hadden died in 1929, Larsen purchased 550 shares of Time Inc., using money he obtained from selling [[RKO Pictures|RKO]] stock which he had inherited from his father, who was the head of the [[Benjamin Franklin Keith]] theatre chain in [[New England]]. However, after Briton Hadden's death, the largest Time stockholder was [[Henry Luce]], who ruled the media conglomerate in an autocratic fashion, "at his right hand was Larsen", Time's second-largest stockholder, according to ''Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941''. In 1929, Roy Larsen was also named a Time Inc. director and vice-president. J. P. Morgan retained a certain control through two directorates and a share of stocks, both over ''Time'' and ''Fortune''. Other shareholders were Brown Brothers [[W. A. Harriman]] & Co., and The New York Trust Company ([[Standard Oil]]).{{citation needed|date=May 2015}}
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Around the time they were raising $100,000 from wealthy [[Yale]] alumni such as Henry P. Davison, partner of [[J.P. Morgan & Co.]], publicity man Martin Egan and J.P. Morgan & Co. banker Dwight Morrow, Henry Luce, and Briton Hadden hired Larsen in 1922&nbsp;– although Larsen was a [[Harvard University|Harvard]] graduate and Luce and Hadden were Yale graduates. After Hadden died in 1929, Larsen purchased 550 shares of Time Inc., using money he obtained from selling [[RKO Pictures|RKO]] stock which he had inherited from his father, who was the head of the [[Benjamin Franklin Keith]] theatre chain in [[New England]]. However, after Briton Hadden's death, the largest Time, Inc. stockholder was Henry Luce, who ruled the media conglomerate in an autocratic fashion, "at his right hand was Larsen", Time's second-largest stockholder, according to ''Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941''. In 1929, Roy Larsen was also named a Time Inc. director and vice president. J. P. Morgan retained a certain control through two directorates and a share of stocks, both over ''Time'' and ''Fortune''. Other shareholders were Brown Brothers [[W. A. Harriman]] & Co., and the New York Trust Company ([[Standard Oil]]).{{citation needed|date=May 2015}}
   
The Time Inc. stock owned by Luce at the time of his death was worth about $109 million, and it had been yielding him a yearly dividend of more than $2.4 million, according to Curtis Prendergast's ''The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Changing Enterprise 1957–1983''. The Larsen family's Time stock was worth around $80 million during the 1960s, and Roy Larsen was both a Time Inc. director and the chairman of its Executive Committee, later serving as Time's vice-chairman of the board until the middle of 1979. According to the September 10, 1979 issue of ''The New York Times'', "Mr. Larsen was the only employee in the company's history given an exemption from its policy of mandatory retirement at age 65."{{citation needed|date=May 2015}}
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The Time Inc. stock owned by Luce at the time of his death was worth about $109&nbsp;million, and it had been yielding him a yearly dividend of more than $2.4&nbsp;million, according to Curtis Prendergast's ''The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Changing Enterprise 1957–1983''. The Larsen family's Time stock was worth around $80&nbsp;million during the 1960s, and Roy Larsen was both a Time Inc. director and the chairman of its executive committee, later serving as Time's vice chairman of the board until the middle of 1979. According to the September 10, 1979, issue of ''The New York Times'', "Mr. Larsen was the only employee in the company's history given an exemption from its policy of mandatory retirement at age 65."
   
After ''Time'' magazine began publishing its weekly issues in March 1923, Roy Larsen was able to increase its circulation by utilizing U.S. radio and movie theaters around the world. It often promoted both ''Time'' magazine and U.S. political and corporate interests. According to ''[[The March of Time]]'', as early as 1924, Larsen had brought ''Time'' into the infant radio business with the broadcast of a 15-minute sustaining quiz show entitled ''Pop Question'' which survived until 1925". Then, in 1928, Larsen "undertook the weekly broadcast of a 10-minute programme series of brief news summaries, drawn from current issues of ''Time'' magazine [...] which was originally broadcast over 33 stations throughout the United States".{{citation needed|date=May 2015}}
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After ''Time'' magazine began publishing its weekly issues in March 1923, Roy Larsen was able to increase its circulation by using U.S. radio and movie theaters around the world. It often promoted both ''Time'' magazine and U.S. political and corporate interests. According to ''[[The March of Time]]'', as early as 1924, Larsen had brought ''Time'' into the infant radio business with the broadcast of a 15-minute sustaining quiz show entitled ''Pop Question'' which survived until 1925". Then, in 1928, Larsen "undertook the weekly broadcast of a 10-minute programme series of brief news summaries, drawn from current issues of ''Time'' magazine [...] which was originally broadcast over 33 stations throughout the United States".{{citation needed|date=May 2015}}
   
 
Larsen next arranged for a 30-minute radio program, ''[[The March of Time]]'', to be broadcast over [[CBS]], beginning on March 6, 1931. Each week, the program presented a dramatisation of the week's news for its listeners, thus ''Time'' magazine itself was brought "to the attention of millions previously unaware of its existence", according to ''Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941'', leading to an increased circulation of the magazine during the 1930s. Between 1931 and 1937, Larsen's ''[[The March of Time]]'' radio program was broadcast over CBS radio and between 1937 and 1945 it was broadcast over NBC radio&nbsp;– except for the 1939 to 1941 period when it was not aired. ''[[People (American magazine)|People Magazine]]'' was based on ''<nowiki>Time'</nowiki>''s People page.
 
Larsen next arranged for a 30-minute radio program, ''[[The March of Time]]'', to be broadcast over [[CBS]], beginning on March 6, 1931. Each week, the program presented a dramatisation of the week's news for its listeners, thus ''Time'' magazine itself was brought "to the attention of millions previously unaware of its existence", according to ''Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941'', leading to an increased circulation of the magazine during the 1930s. Between 1931 and 1937, Larsen's ''[[The March of Time]]'' radio program was broadcast over CBS radio and between 1937 and 1945 it was broadcast over NBC radio&nbsp;– except for the 1939 to 1941 period when it was not aired. ''[[People (American magazine)|People Magazine]]'' was based on ''<nowiki>Time'</nowiki>''s People page.
   
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In 1987, [[Jason McManus]] succeeded [[Henry Grunwald (editor)|Henry Grunwald]] as editor-in-chief<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://archive.fortune.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/1995/01/16/201800/index.htm|date=16 January 1995|title=In the Shoes of Henry R. Luce |work=Fortune|access-date=7 April 2020|language=en-US}}</ref> and oversaw the transition before [[Norman Pearlstine]] succeeded him in 1995.
In 1989, when Time, Inc. and Warner Communications merged, ''Time'' became part of [[Time Warner]], along with [[Warner Bros.]] .
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In 1989, when Time, Inc. and Warner Communications merged, ''Time'' became part of [[Time Warner]], along with [[Warner Bros.]]In 2000,'' Time'' became part of [[Time Warner#Merger with AOL|AOL Time Warner]], which reverted to the name Time Warner in 2003.
   
 
In 2007, ''Time'' moved from a Monday subscription/newsstand delivery to a schedule where the magazine goes on sale Fridays, and is delivered to subscribers on Saturday.<!--dead link<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/ap/fn/4123937.html|title=Chron.com|publisher=}}</ref>--> The magazine actually began in 1923 with Friday publication.
In 1988, [[Jason McManus]] succeeded [[Henry Grunwald (editor)|Henry Grunwald]] as Editor-in-Chief and oversaw the transition before [[Norman Pearlstine]] succeeded him in 1995.
 
   
 
During early 2007, the year's first issue was delayed for roughly a week due to "editorial changes", including the layoff of 49 employees.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://gawker.com/229978/time-inc-layoffs-surveying-the-wreckage|title=Time Inc. Layoffs: Surveying the Wreckage|accessdate=December 15, 2007|publisher=Gawker}}</ref>
In 2000, Time magazine became part of AOL Time Warner, which reverted to the name Time Warner in 2003.
 
   
 
In 2009, ''Time'' announced that they were introducing a personalized print magazine, ''Mine'', mixing content from a range of Time Warner publications based on the reader's preferences. The new magazine met with a poor reception, with criticism that its focus was too broad to be truly personal.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://platform.idiomag.com/2009/04/times-foray-into-personalized-publishing-time-mine/|title=Time's foray into personal publishing|accessdate=December 15, 2007|date=April 27, 2009|url-status=dead|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090430001058/http://platform.idiomag.com/2009/04/times-foray-into-personalized-publishing-time-mine/|archivedate=April 30, 2009}}</ref>
In 2007, ''Time'' moved from a Monday subscription/newsstand delivery to a schedule where the magazine goes on sale Fridays, and is delivered to subscribers on Saturday.<!--dead link<ref>[http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/ap/fn/4123937.html Chron.com]</ref>--> The magazine actually began in 1923 with Friday publication.
 
   
 
The magazine has an online archive with the unformatted text for every article published. The articles are indexed and were converted from scanned images using [[optical character recognition]] technology. The minor errors in the text are remnants of the conversion into digital format.
During early 2007, the year's first issue was delayed for roughly a week due to "editorial changes", including the layoff of 49 employees.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://gawker.com/news/time-inc./time-inc-layoffs-surveying-the-wreckage-229978.php|title=Time Inc. Layoffs: Surveying the Wreckage|accessdate=December 15, 2007|publisher=Gawker}}</ref>
 
   
 
Time Inc. and [[Apple Inc.|Apple]] have come to an agreement wherein U.S. subscribers to ''Time'' will be able to read the [[iPad]] versions for free, at least until the two companies sort out a viable digital subscription model.<ref>{{cite web|last=Adams |first=Russell |url=https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052748703703304576296980128055282?mod=WSJ_Tech_RightMostPopular |title=WSJ.com, Time Inc. in iPad Deal With Apple |publisher=Online.wsj.com |date=May 2, 2011 |accessdate=January 26, 2014}}</ref>{{clarify|date=October 2018}}
In 2009 ''Time'' announced that they were introducing a personalized print magazine, ''Mine'', mixing content from a range of Time Warner publications based on the reader's preferences. The new magazine met with a poor reception, with criticism that its focus was too broad to be truly personal.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://platform.idiomag.com/2009/04/times-foray-into-personalized-publishing-time-mine/|title=Time's foray into personal publishing|accessdate=December 15, 2007|date=April 27, 2009}}</ref>
 
   
 
In January 2013, Time Inc. announced that it would cut nearly 500 jobs – roughly 6% of its 8,000 staff worldwide.<ref>[https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887324610504578273830154238010 "Time Inc. Cutting Staff"], ''Wall Street Journal'', January 30, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.</ref> Although ''Time'' magazine has maintained high sales, its ad pages have declined significantly over time.<ref>[https://www.theguardian.com/media/greenslade/2013/jan/31/time-magazine-downturn "Time Inc to Shed 500 Jobs"], Greenslade Blog, ''The Guardian'', January 31, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.</ref>
The magazine has an online archive with the unformatted text for every article published. The articles are indexed and were converted from scanned images using [[optical character recognition]] technology. There are still minor errors in the text that are remnants of the conversion into digital format.
 
   
 
Also in January 2013, Time Inc. named Martha Nelson as the first female editor-in-chief of its magazine division.<ref name="Haughney">{{cite news| url=https://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/18/business/media/time-magazine-names-its-first-female-managing-editor.html?_r=0 | work=The New York Times | first=Christine | last=Haughney | title=Time Magazine Names Its First Female Managing Editor | date=September 17, 2013}}</ref> In September 2013, [[Nancy Gibbs]] was named as the first female managing editor of ''Time'' magazine.<ref name="Haughney"/>
Time Inc. and [[Apple Inc.|Apple]] have come to an agreement wherein U.S. subscribers to ''Time'' will be able to read the [[iPad]] versions for free, at least until the two companies sort out a viable digital subscription model.<ref>{{cite web|last=Adams |first=Russell |url=https://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703703304576296980128055282.html?mod=WSJ_Tech_RightMostPopular |title=WSJ.com, Time Inc. in iPad Deal With Apple |publisher=Online.wsj.com |date=2011-05-02 |accessdate=2014-01-26}}</ref>
 
   
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In November 2017, [[Meredith Corporation]] announced its acquisition of Time, Inc., backed by [[Koch brothers|Koch Equity Development]].<ref name="NYT 2017">{{cite web|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/26/business/dealbook/time-inc-meredith-corporation-koch-brothers.html|title=Time Inc. Sells Itself to Meredith Corp., Backed by Koch Brothers|last1=Ember|first1=Sydney|last2=Ross|first2=Andrew|work=[[The New York Times]]|date=November 26, 2017|accessdate=November 27, 2017}}</ref> In March 2018, only six weeks after the closure of the sale, Meredith announced that it would explore the sale of ''Time'' and sister magazines ''[[Fortune (magazine)|Fortune]]'', ''[[Money (magazine)|Money]]'', ''[[Sports Illustrated]]'', since they did not align with the company's lifestyle brands.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://variety.com/2018/biz/news/meredith-layoffs-1200-time-inc-magazine-sale-time-si-fortune-money-1202732892/|title=Meredith Laying Off 1,200, Will Explore Sale of Time, SI, Fortune and Money Brands|last=Spangler|first=Todd|date=March 21, 2018|work=Variety|access-date=March 22, 2018|language=en-US}}</ref>
In January 2013, Time Inc. announced that it would cut nearly 500 jobs – roughly 6% of its 8,000 staff worldwide.<ref>[https://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324610504578273830154238010.html "Time Inc. Cutting Staff"], ''Wall Street Journal'', January 30, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.</ref> Although ''Time'' magazine has maintained high sales, its ad pages have declined significantly over time.<ref>[https://www.theguardian.com/media/greenslade/2013/jan/31/time-magazine-downturn "Time Inc to Shed 500 Jobs"], Greenslade Blog, ''The Guardian'', January 31, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.</ref>
 
   
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In 2017, editor and journalist [[Catherine Mayer]], who also founded the [[Women's Equality Party]] in the UK, sued ''Time'' through attorney [[Ann Olivarius]] for sex and age discrimination.<ref>Emma Graham-Harrison, "[https://www.theguardian.com/media/2017/aug/05/catherine-mayer-time-magazine-sex-discrimination-lawsuit Top journalist sues Time magazine for ‘sex and age discrimination’]", The Guardian, 5 August 2017; ''Mayer v. Time, Inc'', [https://www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Mayer-v-Time.pdf No. 1:2017cv05613]</ref> The suit was resolved in 2018.<ref>Vanessa Thorpe and Emma Graham-Harrison, "[https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/sep/08/sandi-toksvig-reveals-60-qi-pay-gap-from-stephen-fry Sandi Toksvig sparks new gender pay row over QI fee]," The Guardian, 8 September 2018.</ref>
Also in January 2013, Time Inc. named Martha Nelson as the first female editor-in-chief of its magazine division.<ref name="Haughney">{{cite news| url=https://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/18/business/media/time-magazine-names-its-first-female-managing-editor.html?_r=0 | work=The New York Times | first=Christine | last=Haughney | title=Time Magazine Names Its First Female Managing Editor | date=September 17, 2013}}</ref> In September 2013, [[Nancy Gibbs]] was named as the first female managing editor of ''Time'' magazine.<ref name="Haughney"/>
 
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In September 2018, Meredith Corporation announced that it would re-sell ''Time'' to [[Marc Benioff]] and his wife Lynne for $190&nbsp;million, which was completed on October 31, 2018. Although Benioff is the chairman and co-CEO of [[Salesforce.com]], ''Time'' will remain separate from the company, and Benioff will not be involved in its daily operations.<ref>{{Cite news |url=https://techcrunch.com/2018/09/16/marc-and-lynne-benioff-will-buy-times-magazine-from-meredith-for-190m/|title=Marc and Lynne Benioff will buy Time magazine from Meredith for $190M |work=TechCrunch |date=September 17, 2018 |last=Shu |first=Catherine |access-date=September 17, 2018}}.</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.thewrap.com/time-magazine-staffs-up-under-new-ownership/|title=Time Magazine Staffs Up Under New Ownership|website=thewrap.com|access-date=2019-06-07}}</ref> The sale was completed on October 31, 2018. Time USA, LLC the parent company of the magazine is owned by Marc Benioff.
   
 
==Circulation==
 
==Circulation==
 
During the second half of 2009, the magazine had a 34.9% decline in newsstand sales.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/02/08/magazines-newsstand-sales-fall-91-percent/|work=The New York Times|title=Magazines' Newsstand Sales Fall 9.1 Percent|first=Stephanie|last=Clifford|date=February 8, 2010}}</ref> During the first half of 2010, another decline of at least one-third in ''Time'' magazine sales occurred. In the second half of 2010, ''Time'' magazine newsstand sales declined by about 12% to just over 79,000 copies per week.{{citation needed|date=May 2015}}
{| class="wikitable"
 
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|+ ''Time'' magazine paid circulation by year{{citation needed|date=May 2015}}
 
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As of 2012, it had a circulation of 3.3&nbsp;million, making it the 11th-most circulated magazine in the United States, and the second-most circulated weekly behind ''[[People (magazine)|People]]''.<ref name=Politico>{{cite web |last=Byers |first=Dylan |date=August 7, 2012 |url=http://www.politico.com/blogs/media/2012/08/time-magazine-still-on-top-in-circulation-131349.html |title=Time Magazine still on top in circulation |magazine=[[Politico]] |accessdate=October 8, 2018}}</ref> As of July 2017, its circulation was 3,028,013.<ref name=AllianceAuditedMedia/> In October 2017, Time cut its circulation to two million.<ref name="Trachtenberg">{{cite web|url=https://www.wsj.com/articles/for-time-inc-s-magazines-fewer-copies-is-the-way-forward-1507667214|title=For Time Inc.'s Magazines, Fewer Copies Is the Way Forward |first=Jeffrey A.|last=Trachtenberg |date=October 10, 2017|publisher=|via=wsj.com}}</ref> The print edition has a readership of 26&nbsp;million, 20&nbsp;million of whom are based in the United States.
|-
 
! Year
 
| 1997
 
| 1998
 
| 1999
 
| 2000
 
| 2001
 
| 2002
 
| 2003
 
| 2004
 
| 2005
 
| 2006
 
| 2007
 
| 2008
 
| 2009
 
|- style="text-align:right;"
 
! Circulation (millions)
 
| 4.2
 
| 4.1
 
| 4.1
 
| 4.1
 
| 4.1
 
| 4.1
 
| 4.1
 
| 4.0
 
| 4.0
 
| 4.1
 
| 3.4
 
| 3.4
 
| 3.4
 
|}
 
During the second half of 2009, the magazine saw a 34.9% decline in newsstand sales.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/02/08/magazines-newsstand-sales-fall-91-percent/|work=The New York Times|title=Magazines' Newsstand Sales Fall 9.1 Percent|first=Stephanie|last=Clifford|date=February 8, 2010}}</ref> During the first half of 2010, there was another decline of at least one-third in ''Time'' magazine sales. In the second half of 2010, ''Time'' magazine newsstand sales declined by about 12% to just over 79,000 copies per week.{{citation needed|date=May 2015}} As of 2012, it has a circulation of 3.3 million, making it the eleventh most circulated magazine in the United States, and the second most circulated weekly behind ''[[People (magazine)|People]]''.<ref name=Politico/> As of 2014, its circulation was 3,286,467<ref name=AllianceAuditedMedia/>
 
   
 
==Style==
 
==Style==
''Time'' initially possessed a distinctive writing style, making regular use of [[inverted sentence]]s. This was parodied in 1936 by [[Wolcott Gibbs]] in ''[[The New Yorker]]'': "Backward ran sentences until reeled the mind [...] Where it all will end, knows God!"<ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=xpMiAQAAMAAJ&q=%22Backward+ran+sentences+until+reeled+the+mind%22&dq=%22Backward+ran+sentences+until+reeled+the+mind%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=6IL-Ud0K5JDIAc-0gbAI&ved=0CEUQ6AEwBQ |title=The New Yorker - Google Books |publisher=Books.google.com |accessdate=2014-01-26}}</ref>
+
''Time'' initially possessed a distinctive writing style, making regular use of [[inverted sentence]]s. This was parodied in 1936 by [[Wolcott Gibbs]] in ''[[The New Yorker]]'': "Backward ran sentences until reeled the mind [...] Where it all will end, knows God!"<ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=xpMiAQAAMAAJ&q=%22Backward+ran+sentences+until+reeled+the+mind%22 |title=The New Yorker Google Books |accessdate=January 26, 2014|last1=Ross |first1=Harold Wallace |last2=White |first2=Katharine Sergeant Angell |year=1936 }}</ref>
   
 
Until the mid-1970s, ''Time'' had a weekly section called "Listings", which contained capsule summaries and/or reviews of then-current significant films, plays, musicals, television programs, and literary bestsellers similar to ''[[The New Yorker]]<nowiki>'</nowiki>''s "Current Events" section.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.time.com/time/archive|work=Time|title=TIME Magazine archives}}</ref>
 
Until the mid-1970s, ''Time'' had a weekly section called "Listings", which contained capsule summaries and/or reviews of then-current significant films, plays, musicals, television programs, and literary bestsellers similar to ''[[The New Yorker]]<nowiki>'</nowiki>''s "Current Events" section.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.time.com/time/archive|work=Time|title=TIME Magazine archives}}</ref>
   
''Time'' is also known for its signature red border, first introduced in 1927. The iconic red border was homaged or satirized by Seattle's ''[[The Stranger (newspaper)|The Stranger]]'' newspaper in 2010.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.thestranger.com/seattle/great-american-novelist/Content?oid=4940853 |title=Great American Novelist |last=Lin |first=Tao |date=September 21, 2010 |work=[[The Stranger (newspaper)|TheStranger.com]] |accessdate=May 30, 2011}}</ref>
+
''Time'' is also known for its signature red border, first introduced in 1927.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.thestranger.com/seattle/great-american-novelist/Content?oid=4940853 |title=Great American Novelist |last=Lin |first=Tao |date=September 21, 2010 |work=[[The Stranger (newspaper)|TheStranger.com]] |accessdate=May 30, 2011}}</ref> The border has only been changed six times since 1927:
   
The border has only been changed four times since 1927: The issue released shortly after the [[September 11 attacks]] on the United States featured a black border to symbolize [[mourning]]. However, this edition was a special "extra" edition published quickly for the breaking news of the event; the next regularly scheduled issue contained the red border. Additionally, the April 28, 2008 [[Earth Day]] issue, dedicated to [[List of environmental issues|environmental issues]], contained a green border.<ref>MSNBC-TV report by Andrea Mitchell, April 17, 2008, 1:45&nbsp;pm .</ref><!-- temporary reference; more permanent one to follow --> The next change in border was in the September 19, 2011 issue, commemorating the [[Memorials and services for the September 11 attacks|10th anniversary of September 11 attacks]] with a metallic silver border. The most recent change (again with a silver border) was in the December 31, 2012 issue, noting [[Barack Obama]]'s selection as Person of the Year.
+
*The issue released shortly after the [[September 11 attacks]] on the United States featured a black border to symbolize [[mourning]]. However, this was a special "extra" edition published quickly for the breaking news of the event; the next regularly scheduled issue contained the red border.
  +
*The April 28, 2008, [[Earth Day]] issue, dedicated to [[List of environmental issues|environmental issues]], contained a green border.<ref>MSNBC-TV report by Andrea Mitchell, April 17, 2008, 1:45&nbsp;pm .</ref><!-- temporary reference; more permanent one to follow -->
  +
*The September 19, 2011, issue, commemorating the [[Memorials and services for the September 11 attacks|10th anniversary of September 11 attacks]], had a metallic silver border.
  +
*Another silver border was used in the December 31, 2012, issue, noting [[Barack Obama]]'s selection as Person of the Year.
  +
*The November 28/December 5, 2016, issue, also featuring a silver border covering the Most Influential Photos of All Time.
  +
*The June 15, 2020, issue of the protests surrounding the death of George Floyd is the first time the red border of TIME includes the names of people. The cover, by artist Titus Kaphar, depicts an African-American mother holding her child.
  +
*The September 21 & 28, 2020, issue on the American response to the [[COVID-19 pandemic in the United States|coronavirus pandemic]] featured a black border.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://time.com/5887436/time-black-border-coronavirus/|work=Time|title=The Story Behind TIME's Issue Marking Nearly 200,000 U.S. Deaths—and Why Its Border Is Black For the Second Time in History}}</ref>
   
  +
Former president [[Richard Nixon]] has been among the most frequently-featured on the front page of Time, having appeared 55 times from the August 25, 1952 issue to the May 2, 1994 issue.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://time.com/3085905/richard-nixon-resignation-anniversary-watergate-time-covers/|title=Watch: The Rise and Fall of Richard Nixon in TIME Covers|website=Time|language=en|access-date=September 17, 2018}}</ref>
In 2007, ''Time'' engineered a style overhaul of the magazine<!--LATTER PART NEEDS A CITE: aimed at appealing to a younger generation-->. Among other changes, the magazine reduced the red cover border in order to promote featured stories, enlarged column titles, reduced the number of featured stories, increased [[White space (visual arts)|white space]] around articles, and accompanied opinion pieces with photographs of the writers. The changes have met both criticism and praise.<ref>{{cite web|title=The Time of Their Lives|url=http://nymag.com/news/features/28976/|work=NYMag.com|publisher=New York Magazine|accessdate=22 August 2012|author=Joe Hagan|date=4 March 2007}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Does The Redesign of Time Magazine Mean It Has A New Business Model As Well?|url=http://www.businessweek.com/innovate/NussbaumOnDesign/archives/2007/03/does_the_redesi.html|work=Bloomberg Businessweek|publisher=BLOOMBERG L.P|accessdate=22 August 2012|author=Bruce Nussbaum|date=25 March 2007}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=Full Esteem Ahead |url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/20/AR2006122001330.html|work=The Washington Post|first=George F.|last=Will|date=December 21, 2006}}</ref>
 
  +
 
In 2007, ''Time'' engineered a style overhaul of the magazine<!--LATTER PART NEEDS A CITE: aimed at appealing to a younger generation-->. Among other changes, the magazine reduced the red cover border to promote featured stories, enlarged column titles, reduced the number of featured stories, increased [[White space (visual arts)|white space]] around articles, and accompanied opinion pieces with photographs of the writers. The changes were met with both criticism and praise.<ref>{{cite web|title=The Time of Their Lives|url=http://nymag.com/news/features/28976/|work=NYMag.com|publisher=New York Magazine|accessdate=August 22, 2012 |first=Joe |last=Hagan |date=March 4, 2007}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Does The Redesign of Time Magazine Mean It Has A New Business Model As Well?|url=http://www.businessweek.com/innovate/NussbaumOnDesign/archives/2007/03/does_the_redesi.html|work=Bloomberg Businessweek|publisher=BLOOMBERG L.P|accessdate=August 22, 2012 |first=Bruce |last=Nussbaum |date=March 25, 2007}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=Full Esteem Ahead |url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/20/AR2006122001330.html|work=The Washington Post|first=George F.|last=Will|date=December 21, 2006}}</ref>
  +
  +
<!-- Deleted image removed: [[File:VOTE TIME Cover, Oct 2020.jpg|thumb|right|The new cover by TIME magazine. Artwork by [[Shepard Fairey]].]] -->
  +
In October 2020, for the first time in its 97-year history, Time magazine is replacing the logo on the cover.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://belatina.com/time-vote-cover-2020-elections/|title=TIME Magazine Changes Its Logo for the First Time|website=BELatina|language=en|access-date=October 26, 2020}}</ref> "Few events will shape the world to come more than the result of the upcoming US presidential election" [[Edward Felsenthal]], Time’s editor-in-chief and chief executive wrote.
   
 
==Special editions==
 
==Special editions==
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===Person of the Year===
 
===Person of the Year===
 
{{Main|Time Person of the Year}}
 
{{Main|Time Person of the Year}}
''Time''{{'}}s most famous feature throughout its history has been the annual "Person of the Year" (formerly "Man of the Year") cover story, in which ''Time'' recognizes the individual or group of individuals who have had the biggest impact on news headlines over the past 12 months. The distinction is supposed to go to the person who, ''for good or ill'', has most affected the course of the year; it is therefore not necessarily an honor or a reward. In the past, such figures as [[Adolf Hitler]] and [[Joseph Stalin]] have been Man of the Year.
+
''Time''{{'}}s most famous feature throughout its history has been the annual "Person of the Year" (formerly "Man of the Year") cover story, in which ''Time'' recognizes the individual or group of individuals who have had the biggest impact on news headlines over the past 12 months. The distinction is supposed to go to the person who, "for good or ill", has most affected the course of the year; it is, therefore, not necessarily an honor or a reward. In the past, such figures as [[Adolf Hitler]] and [[Joseph Stalin]] have been Man of the Year.
   
 
In 2006, Person of the Year was designated as [[You (Time Person of the Year)|"You"]], a move that was met with split reviews. Some thought the concept was creative; others wanted an actual person of the year. Editors Pepper and Timmer reflected that, if it had been a mistake, "we're only going to make it once".<ref>{{cite web|title=The Time of Their Lives|url= http://nymag.com/news/features/28976/|accessdate=April 22, 2007}}</ref>
 
In 2006, Person of the Year was designated as [[You (Time Person of the Year)|"You"]], a move that was met with split reviews. Some thought the concept was creative; others wanted an actual person of the year. Editors Pepper and Timmer reflected that, if it had been a mistake, "we're only going to make it once".<ref>{{cite web|title=The Time of Their Lives|url= http://nymag.com/news/features/28976/|accessdate=April 22, 2007}}</ref>
  +
  +
In 2017, ''Time'' named The Silence Breakers, people who came forward with personal stories of sexual harassment, as Person of the Year.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.usatoday.com/story/life/2017/12/06/times-person-year-silence-breakers-speaking-out-against-sexual-harassment/926184001/|title=Time's Person of the Year: 'Silence Breakers' speaking out against sexual harassment|publisher=}}</ref>
   
 
===''Time'' 100===
 
===''Time'' 100===
 
{{Main|Time 100}}
 
{{Main|Time 100}}
   
In recent years, ''Time'' has assembled an annual list of the 100 most influential people of the year. Originally, they had made a list of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century. These issues usually have the front cover filled with pictures of people from the list and devote a substantial amount of space within the magazine to the 100 articles about each person on the list. There have, in some cases, been over 100 people, when two people have made the list together, sharing one spot.
+
In recent years, ''Time'' has assembled an annual list of the 100 most influential people of the year. Originally, they had made a list of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century. These issues usually have the front cover filled with pictures of people from the list and devote a substantial amount of space within the magazine to the 100 articles about each person on the list. In some cases, over 100 people have been included, as when two people have made the list together, sharing one spot.
   
The magazine also compiled "All-''TIME'' 100 best novels" and "[[Time magazine's "All-TIME" 100 best movies|All-''TIME'' 100 best movies]]" lists in 2005,<ref>{{cite news|title=All-''TIME'' 100 Movies|first=Richard|last=Corliss|authorlink=Richard Corliss|author2=[[Richard Schickel|Schickel, Richard]]|work=Time|url=http://www.time.com/time/2005/100movies|date=February 12, 2005}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=Best Soundtracks|work=Time|url=http://www.time.com/time/2005/100movies/0,23220,soundtracks,00.html|date=February 12, 2005}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.time.com/time/columnist/corliss/article/0,9565,1068026,00.html|title=That Old Feeling: Secrets of the All-''Time'' 100|first=Richard|last=Corliss|date=June 2, 2005|work=Time}}</ref> "The 100 Best TV Shows of All-''TIME''" in 2007,<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.time.com/time/specials/2007/article/0,28804,1651341_1659192_1652529,00.html|title=The 100 Best TV Shows of All-''TIME''|first=James|last=Poniewozik|authorlink=James Poniewozik|work=Time|date=September 6, 2007}}</ref> and "All-''TIME'' 100 Fashion Icons" in 2012.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/completelist/0,29569,2110513,00.html|title=All-TIME 100 Fashion Icons|work=Time|date=April 2, 2012}}</ref>
+
The magazine also compiled "All-''TIME'' 100 best novels" and "[[Time magazine's "All-TIME" 100 best movies|All-''TIME'' 100 best movies]]" lists in 2005,<ref>{{cite news|title=All-''TIME'' 100 Movies|first=Richard|last=Corliss|authorlink=Richard Corliss|author2=[[Richard Schickel|Schickel, Richard]]|work=Time|url=http://www.time.com/time/2005/100movies|date=February 12, 2005}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=Best Soundtracks|work=Time|url=http://www.time.com/time/2005/100movies/0,23220,soundtracks,00.html|date=February 12, 2005}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.time.com/time/columnist/corliss/article/0,9565,1068026,00.html|title=That Old Feeling: Secrets of the All-''Time'' 100|first=Richard|last=Corliss|date=June 2, 2005|work=Time|url-status=dead|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100811185345/http://www.time.com/time/columnist/corliss/article/0,9565,1068026,00.html|archivedate=August 11, 2010}}</ref> "The 100 Best TV Shows of All-''TIME''" in 2007,<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.time.com/time/specials/2007/article/0,28804,1651341_1659192_1652529,00.html|title=The 100 Best TV Shows of All-''TIME''|first=James|last=Poniewozik|authorlink=James Poniewozik|work=Time|date=September 6, 2007}}</ref> and "All-''TIME'' 100 Fashion Icons" in 2012.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/completelist/0,29569,2110513,00.html|title=All-TIME 100 Fashion Icons|work=Time|date=April 2, 2012}}</ref>
   
In February 2016, ''Time'' included the British and male author [[Evelyn Waugh]] on its "100 Most Read Female Writers in College Classes" list (he was 97th on the list) which created much media attention and concerns about the level of basic education among the magazine's staff.<ref>[http://www.inquisitr.com/2828207/evelyn-waugh-time/ "Evelyn Waugh: 'Time' Names Male Writer in List of "100 Most Read Female Writers" " by Jennifer Deutschman], [http://www.newsmax.com/TheWire/evelyn-waugh-time-female-author/2016/02/26/id/716287/ Evelyn Waugh: Time Mag List of 'Most-Read Female Authors' Includes a Man by Jonna Lorenz]</ref> ''Time'' later issued a retraction.<ref>"Evelyn Waugh: 'Time' Names Male Writer in List of "100 Most Read Female Writers" " by Jennifer Deutschman</ref> In a [[BBC]] interview with [[Justin Webb]], Professor [[Valentine Cunningham]] of [[Corpus Christi College, Oxford]], described the mistake as "a piece of profound ignorance on the part of ''Time'' magazine".<ref>[http://www.bbc.com/news/entertainment-arts-35667540 Time magazine correction: Evelyn Waugh was not a woman]</ref>
+
In February 2016, ''Time'' mistakenly included the male author [[Evelyn Waugh]] on its "100 Most Read Female Writers in College Classes" list (he was 97th on the list). The error created much media attention and concerns about the level of basic education among the magazine's staff.<ref name=waugh>{{cite web|url=http://www.inquisitr.com/2828207/evelyn-waugh-time/|work=The Inquisitr|title=Evelyn Waugh: 'Time' Names Male Writer In List Of '100 Most Read Female Authors'|date=February 25, 2016|publisher=}}</ref> ''Time'' later issued a retraction.<ref name=waugh/> In a [[BBC]] interview with [[Justin Webb]], Professor [[Valentine Cunningham]] of [[Corpus Christi College, Oxford]], described the mistake as "a piece of profound ignorance on the part of ''Time'' magazine".<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.bbc.com/news/av/entertainment-arts-35667540/time-magazine-correction-evelyn-waugh-was-not-a-woman|title=Time magazine correction: Evelyn Waugh was not a woman|date=February 26, 2016|publisher=|via=bbc.com}}</ref>
   
 
===Red X covers===
 
===Red X covers===
 
[[File:Time Magazine red X covers.jpg|right|thumb|''Time'' red X covers: from left to right, Adolf Hitler, Saddam Hussein, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, and Osama bin Laden]]
 
[[File:Time Magazine red X covers.jpg|right|thumb|''Time'' red X covers: from left to right, Adolf Hitler, Saddam Hussein, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, and Osama bin Laden]]
During its history, for five non-consecutive occasions, ''Time'' has released a special issue with a cover showing an X scrawled over the face of a man or a national symbol. The first ''Time'' magazine with a red X cover was released on May 7, 1945, showing a red X over [[Adolf Hitler]]'s face. The second X cover was released more than three months later on August 20, 1945, with a black X (to date, the magazine's only such use of a black X) covering the [[flag of Japan]], representing the recent [[surrender of Japan]] and which signaled the end of [[World War II]].
+
During its history, on five nonconsecutive occasions, ''Time'' has released a special issue with a cover showing an X scrawled over the face of a man or a national symbol. The first ''Time'' magazine with a red X cover was released on May 7, 1945, showing a red X over [[Adolf Hitler]]'s face. The second X cover was released more than three months later on August 20, 1945, with a black X (to date, the magazine's only such use of a black X) covering the [[flag of Japan]], representing the recent [[surrender of Japan]] and which signaled the end of [[World War II]]. Fifty-eight years later, on April 21, 2003, ''Time'' released another issue with a red X over [[Saddam Hussein]]'s face, two weeks after the start of the [[2003 invasion of Iraq|Invasion of Iraq]]. On June 13, 2006, ''Time'' magazine printed a red X cover issue following the death of [[Abu Musab al-Zarqawi]] in a U.S. airstrike in [[Iraq]]. The most recent red X cover issue of ''Time'' was published on May 2, 2011, after the [[death of Osama bin Laden]].<ref name="redxcovers">{{cite web|date=May 2, 2011|title=A Brief History of Time Magazine's 'X' Covers|first=Ray|last=Gustini|url=http://www.thewire.com/entertainment/2011/05/brief-history-time-magazine-red-x-covers/37269/|work=[[The Atlantic|The Wire]]}}</ref> The next red X cover issue of ''Time'' will feature a red X scrawled over the year 2020 and the declaration “the worst year ever”.<ref>{{cite news
  +
| last = A. Waxman
  +
| first = Olivia
  +
| date = 2020-12-05
  +
| title = The History Behind TIME's Use of a Red 'X' on Its Cover
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| url = https://time.com/5917946/time-magazine-red-x-cover/
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| work = Time Magazine
  +
| location =
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| access-date = 2020-12-08
  +
}}</ref><ref>{{cite news
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| last = Ritschel
  +
| first = Chelsea
  +
| date = 2020-12-08
  +
| title = TIME DECLARES 2020 ‘THE WORST YEAR EVER’ ON ITS LATEST COVER
  +
| url = https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/time-2020-worst-year-ever-red-x-cover-b1767562.html
  +
| work = [[The Independent]]
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| location =
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| access-date = 2020-12-08
  +
}}</ref>
   
  +
===Cover Logo replaced by Vote Logo===
Fifty-eight years later, on April 21, 2003, ''Time'' released another issue with a red X over [[Saddam Hussein]]'s face, two weeks after the invasion. On June 13, 2006, ''Time'' magazine printed a red X cover issue following the death of [[Abu Musab al-Zarqawi]] in a U.S. airstrike in [[Iraq]]. The most recent red X cover issue of ''Time'' was published on May 2, 2011, after the [[death of Osama bin Laden]].<ref name="redxcovers">{{cite web|date=May 2, 2011|title=A Brief History of Time Magazine's 'X' Covers|first=Ray|last=Gustini|url=http://www.thewire.com/entertainment/2011/05/brief-history-time-magazine-red-x-covers/37269/|work=[[The Atlantic|The Wire]]}}</ref>
 
  +
The November 02, 2020 issue of the U.S. edition of Time is the first time that the cover logo "Time" was not used. The issue's cover had a replacement logo "Vote" along with artwork by Shepard Fairey, of a voter wearing a pandemic face mask, and accompanied by information on how to vote. The magazine's Editor-in-Chief and CEO of TIME Edward Felsenthal explained this decision for a one-time cover logo change as a "rare moment, one that will separate history into before and after for generations.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Felsenthal |first1=Edward |title=TIME Replaced Its Logo on the Cover For the First Time in Its Nearly 100-Year History. Here's Why We Did It |url=https://time.com/5902712/time-replaced-logo-cover-voting/ |website=time.com |publisher=Time |accessdate=25 October 2020}}</ref>
   
 
==''Time for Kids''==
 
==''Time for Kids''==
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==Time LightBox==
 
==Time LightBox==
Time LightBox is a photography blog created and curated by Time's photo department, that was launched in 2011.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.bjp-online.com/2013/07/changing-time-how-lightbox-has-renewed-times-commitment-to-photography/ | date = 31 July 2013 | accessdate = 6 January 2015 | first = Olivier | last = Laurent | magazine = [[British Journal of Photography]] | title = Changing Time: How LightBox has renewed Time's commitment to photography}}</ref> In 2011 ''[[Life (magazine)|Life]]'' picked LightBox for its Photo Blog Awards.<ref>"[http://web.archive.org/web/20120106140230/http://www.life.com/gallery/57551/lifecoms-2011-photo-blog-awards Life.com's 2011 Photo Blog Awards]", Life.com, as saved by the Wayback Machine on 6 January 2012. The citation reads:<br />
+
Time LightBox is a photography blog created and curated by Time's photo department that was launched in 2011.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.bjp-online.com/2013/07/changing-time-how-lightbox-has-renewed-times-commitment-to-photography/ | date = July 31, 2013 | accessdate = January 6, 2015 | first = Olivier | last = Laurent | magazine = [[British Journal of Photography]] | title = Changing Time: How LightBox has renewed Time's commitment to photography}}</ref> In 2011, ''[[Life (magazine)|Life]]'' picked LightBox for its Photo Blog Awards.<ref>"[https://web.archive.org/web/20120106140230/http://www.life.com/gallery/57551/lifecoms-2011-photo-blog-awards Life.com's 2011 Photo Blog Awards]", Life.com, as saved by the Wayback Machine on January 6, 2012. The citation reads:<br />
<div style="margin:5px 2% auto 2%;font-size:90%">Elegant and commanding, intimate and worldly, Time magazine's beautifully designed LightBox blog is an essential destination for those who appreciate contemporary photography. Much more than photojournalism, Lightbox (which, like LIFE.com, is owned by Time Inc.) explores today's new documentary and fine art photography from the perspective of the photo editors at Time -- arguably the strongest editors working in their field today. LightBox offers fascinating dispatches from every corner of the world...</div></ref>
+
<div style="margin:5px 2% auto 2%;font-size:90%">Elegant and commanding, intimate and worldly, Time magazine's beautifully designed LightBox blog is an essential destination for those who appreciate contemporary photography. Much more than photojournalism, Lightbox (which, like LIFE.com, is owned by Time Inc.) explores today's new documentary and fine art photography from the perspective of the photo editors at Time arguably the strongest editors working in their field today. LightBox offers fascinating dispatches from every corner of the world...</div></ref>
   
 
==Staff==
 
==Staff==
  +
[[File:Time Field Operations at Casper Events Center in Casper, Wyoming.jpg|thumb|right|Time Field Operations in [[Casper, Wyoming]] during the [[Solar eclipse of August 21, 2017|2017 total solar eclipse]]]]
  +
 
[[Richard Stengel]] was the managing editor from May 2006 to October 2013, when he joined the [[United States Department of State|U.S. State Department]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Richard Stengel|url=http://www.timemediakit.com/us/media/bios/stengel.html|work=TIME Media Kit|publisher=Time Inc |accessdate=August 22, 2012|date=July 30, 2012|url-status=dead|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120305182439/http://www.timemediakit.com/us/media/bios/stengel.html|archivedate=March 5, 2012}}</ref><ref name="WWD">{{cite web | url=http://www.wwd.com/media-news/publishing/nancy-gibbs-named-times-managing-editor-7162968?src=nl/newsAlert/20130917-5 | title=Nancy Gibbs Named Time's Managing Editor | publisher=WWD |date=September 17, 2013 |accessdate=September 17, 2013 |last=Maza |first=Erik}}</ref> [[Nancy Gibbs]] was the managing editor from September 2013 until September 2017.<ref name="WWD"/> She was succeeded by [[Edward Felsenthal]], who had been ''Time''<nowiki/>'s digital editor.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/2017/09/14/time-magazine-names-edward-felsenthal-new-editor-in-chief/665212001/|title=Time magazine names Edward Felsenthal as new editor-in-chief|publisher=}}</ref>
   
 
===Editors===
 
===Editors===
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* [[Henry Luce]] (1929–1949)
 
* [[Henry Luce]] (1929–1949)
 
* [[T. S. Matthews]] (1949–1953)
 
* [[T. S. Matthews]] (1949–1953)
  +
* Roy Alexander (1960–1966)
   
 
===Managing editors===
 
===Managing editors===
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{{refimprove|section|date=March 2020}}
 
{|class="wikitable sortable"
 
{|class="wikitable sortable"
 
|-
 
|-
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!|Editor To
 
!|Editor To
 
|-
 
|-
  +
|sortname|John S. Martin<ref name="NYU">{{cite web |url=http://dlib.nyu.edu/findingaids/html/nyhs/timeincoverview/bioghist.html |title=Guide to the Time Inc. Records Overview 1853–2015 |publisher=New-York Historical Society |accessdate=October 8, 2018 |date=July 23, 2018}}</ref>
|sortname|[[T. S. Matthews]]
 
  +
|align=center|1929
  +
|align=center|1937
 
|-
  +
|sortname|Manfred Gottfried<ref name="NYU" />
  +
|align=center|1937
  +
|align=center|1943
 
|-
 
|sortname|[[T. S. Matthews]]<ref name="NYU" />
 
|align=center|1943
 
|align=center|1943
 
|align=center|1949
 
|align=center|1949
Line 181: Line 194:
 
|sortname|[[Nancy Gibbs]]
 
|sortname|[[Nancy Gibbs]]
 
|align=center|2013
 
|align=center|2013
|align=center|Present
+
|align=center|2017
  +
|-
  +
|[[Edward Felsenthal]]
  +
|align=center|2017
  +
|align=center|''present''
 
|}
 
|}
   
Line 187: Line 204:
 
* [[Aravind Adiga]], ''Time'' correspondent for three years, winner of the 2008 [[Man Booker Prize]] for fiction
 
* [[Aravind Adiga]], ''Time'' correspondent for three years, winner of the 2008 [[Man Booker Prize]] for fiction
 
* [[James Agee]], book and movie editor for ''Time''
 
* [[James Agee]], book and movie editor for ''Time''
  +
* [[Curt Anderson]], Member of the Maryland House of Delegates
 
* [[Ann Blackman]], deputy news chief in Washington<ref name=blackman.comaboutheauthor>{{cite web|last=Blackman|first=Ann|title=Ann Blackman – Off to Save the World: How JULIA TAFT Made a Difference|url=http://annblackman.com/abouttheauthor.html|work=Promotional website|accessdate=January 28, 2012}}</ref>
 
* [[Ann Blackman]], deputy news chief in Washington<ref name=blackman.comaboutheauthor>{{cite web|last=Blackman|first=Ann|title=Ann Blackman – Off to Save the World: How JULIA TAFT Made a Difference|url=http://annblackman.com/abouttheauthor.html|work=Promotional website|accessdate=January 28, 2012}}</ref>
 
* [[Ian Bremmer]], current Editor-at-Large
 
* [[Ian Bremmer]], current Editor-at-Large
 
* [[Margaret Carlson]], the first female columnist for ''Time''
 
* [[Margaret Carlson]], the first female columnist for ''Time''
 
* [[Robert Cantwell]], writer, editor 1936—1941
 
* [[Robert Cantwell]], writer, editor 1936—1941
* [[Whittaker Chambers]], writer, senior editor 1939—1948
+
* [[Whittaker Chambers]], writer, senior editor 1939—1948
 
* [[Richard Corliss]], film critic for the magazine since 1980
 
* [[Richard Corliss]], film critic for the magazine since 1980
 
* [[Brad Darrach]], film critic
 
* [[Brad Darrach]], film critic
 
* [[Nigel Dennis]], drama critic
 
* [[Nigel Dennis]], drama critic
 
* [[John Gregory Dunne]], reporter; later author and screenwriter
 
* [[John Gregory Dunne]], reporter; later author and screenwriter
* [[Peter Economy]], author and editor
+
* [[Peter Economy]], author and editor
 
* [[Alexander Eliot]], art editor from 1945 to 1961, author of 18 books on art, mythology, and history, including ''Three Hundred Years of American Painting'', published by [[Time-Life Books]]
 
* [[Alexander Eliot]], art editor from 1945 to 1961, author of 18 books on art, mythology, and history, including ''Three Hundred Years of American Painting'', published by [[Time-Life Books]]
  +
* [[John T. Elson]], religion editor who wrote famous 1966 "[[Is God Dead?]]" cover story
 
* [[Dean E. Fischer]], reporter and editor, 1964–81
 
* [[Dean E. Fischer]], reporter and editor, 1964–81
 
* [[Nancy Gibbs]], essayist and [[editor-at-large]]; has written more than 100 ''Time'' cover stories
 
* [[Nancy Gibbs]], essayist and [[editor-at-large]]; has written more than 100 ''Time'' cover stories
* [[Lev Grossman]], writes primarily about books for the magazine
+
* [[Lev Grossman]], wrote primarily about books and technology for the magazine
 
* [[Deena Guzder]], a human rights journalist and author
 
* [[Deena Guzder]], a human rights journalist and author
* Jerry Bernard Hannifin, award-winning chief aerospace correspondent for four decades, as well as specialist on Latin America, and licensed pilot<ref>{{cite web|title=Kennedy Space Center--The Chroniclers|url=https://www.nasa.gov/centers/kennedy/about/history/chroniclers/hannifin.html|accessdate=June 26, 2017}}</ref>
 
 
* [[Wilder Hobson]], reporter in 1930s and '40s
 
* [[Wilder Hobson]], reporter in 1930s and '40s
 
* [[Robert Hughes (critic)|Robert Hughes]], ''Time'''s long-tenured art critic
 
* [[Robert Hughes (critic)|Robert Hughes]], ''Time'''s long-tenured art critic
 
* [[Pico Iyer]], essayist and novelist, essayist for ''Time'' since 1986
 
* [[Pico Iyer]], essayist and novelist, essayist for ''Time'' since 1986
* [[Alvin M. Josephy, Jr.]], photo editor 1952–60; also a historian and Hollywood screenwriter
+
* [[Alvin M. Josephy Jr.]], photo editor 1952–60; also a historian and Hollywood screenwriter
 
* [[Weldon Kees]], critic
 
* [[Weldon Kees]], critic
 
* [[Joe Klein (journalist)|Joe Klein]], author (''[[Primary Colors (novel)|Primary Colors]]'') and a ''Time'' columnist who wrote the "In the Arena" column
 
* [[Joe Klein (journalist)|Joe Klein]], author (''[[Primary Colors (novel)|Primary Colors]]'') and a ''Time'' columnist who wrote the "In the Arena" column
Line 217: Line 235:
 
* [[Jim Murray (sportswriter)|Jim Murray]], West Coast correspondent 1948–1955
 
* [[Jim Murray (sportswriter)|Jim Murray]], West Coast correspondent 1948–1955
 
* [[Lance Morrow]], backpage essayist from 1976 through 2000
 
* [[Lance Morrow]], backpage essayist from 1976 through 2000
  +
* [[Roger Rosenblatt]], essayist from 1979 until 2006
 
* [[Richard Schickel]], film critic from 1965 through 2010
 
* [[Richard Schickel]], film critic from 1965 through 2010
 
* [[Hugh Sidey]], political reporter and columnist, beginning in 1957
 
* [[Hugh Sidey]], political reporter and columnist, beginning in 1957
Line 231: Line 250:
 
In 1940, [[William Saroyan]] lists the full ''Time'' editorial department in the play, ''Love's Old Sweet Song''.<ref>
 
In 1940, [[William Saroyan]] lists the full ''Time'' editorial department in the play, ''Love's Old Sweet Song''.<ref>
 
{{cite book
 
{{cite book
| first = William
+
| first = William
 
| last = Saroyan
 
| last = Saroyan
 
| authorlink = William Saroyan
 
| authorlink = William Saroyan
| title = Love's Old Sweet Song: A Play in Three Acts
+
| title = Love's Old Sweet Song: A Play in Three Acts
 
| publisher = Samuel French
 
| publisher = Samuel French
 
| url = https://archive.org/stream/lovesoldsweetson013163mbp/lovesoldsweetson013163mbp_djvu.txt
 
| url = https://archive.org/stream/lovesoldsweetson013163mbp/lovesoldsweetson013163mbp_djvu.txt
 
| pages = 71–73
 
| pages = 71–73
 
| date = 1940
 
| date = 1940
| accessdate = 15 July 2017}}</ref>
+
| accessdate = July 15, 2017}}</ref>
   
This 1940 snapshot includes:
+
This 1940 snapshot includes:
 
* Editor: Henry R. Luce
 
* Editor: Henry R. Luce
 
* Managing Editors: Manfred Gottfried, Frank Norris, T.S. Matthews
 
* Managing Editors: Manfred Gottfried, Frank Norris, T.S. Matthews
 
* Associate Editors: Carlton J. Balliett Jr., Robert Cantwell, Laird S. Goldsborough, David W. Hulburd Jr., John Stuart Martin, Fanny Saul, Walter Stockly, Dana Tasker, Charles Weretenbaker
 
* Associate Editors: Carlton J. Balliett Jr., Robert Cantwell, Laird S. Goldsborough, David W. Hulburd Jr., John Stuart Martin, Fanny Saul, Walter Stockly, Dana Tasker, Charles Weretenbaker
* Contributing Editors: Roy Alexander, John F. Allen, Robert W. Boyd Jr., Roger Butterfield, Whittaker Chambers, James G. Crowley, Robert Fitzgerald, Calvin Fixx, Walter Graebner, John Hersey, Sidney L. James, Eliot Janeway, Pearl Kroll, Louis Kronenberger, Thomas K. Krug, John T. McManus, Sherry Mangan, Peter Matthews, Robert Neville, Emeline Nollen, Duncan Norton-Taylor, Sidney Olsen, John Osborne, Content Peckham, Green Peyton, Williston C. Rich Jr., Winthrop Sargeant, Robert Sherrod, Lois Stover, Leon Svirsky, Felice Swados, Samuel G. Welles Jr., Warren Wilhelm, and Alfred Wright Jr.
+
* Contributing Editors: Roy Alexander, John F. Allen, Robert W. Boyd Jr., Roger Butterfield, Whittaker Chambers, James G. Crowley, Robert Fitzgerald, Calvin Fixx, Walter Graebner, John Hersey, Sidney L. James, Eliot Janeway, Pearl Kroll, Louis Kronenberger, Thomas K. Krug, John T. McManus, Sherry Mangan, Peter Matthews, Robert Neville, Emeline Nollen, Duncan Norton-Taylor, [[Sidney A. Olson]], John Osborne, Content Peckham, Green Peyton, Williston C. Rich Jr., Winthrop Sargeant, Robert Sherrod, Lois Stover, Leon Svirsky, Felice Swados, [[Samuel Gardner Welles|Samuel G. Welles Jr.]], Warren Wilhelm, and Alfred Wright Jr.
 
* Editorial Assistants: Ellen May Ach, Sheila Baker, Sonia Bigman, Elizabeth Budelrnan, Maria de Blasio, Hannah Durand, Jean Ford, Dorothy Gorrell, Helen Gwynn, Edith Hind, Lois Holsworth, Diana Jackson, Mary V. Johnson, Alice Lent, Kathrine Lowe, Carolyn Marx, Helen McCreery, Gertrude McCullough, Mary Louise Mickey, Anna North, Mary Palmer, Tabitha Petran, Elizabeth Sacartoff, Frances Stevenson, Helen Vind, Eleanor Welch, and Mary Welles.
 
* Editorial Assistants: Ellen May Ach, Sheila Baker, Sonia Bigman, Elizabeth Budelrnan, Maria de Blasio, Hannah Durand, Jean Ford, Dorothy Gorrell, Helen Gwynn, Edith Hind, Lois Holsworth, Diana Jackson, Mary V. Johnson, Alice Lent, Kathrine Lowe, Carolyn Marx, Helen McCreery, Gertrude McCullough, Mary Louise Mickey, Anna North, Mary Palmer, Tabitha Petran, Elizabeth Sacartoff, Frances Stevenson, Helen Vind, Eleanor Welch, and Mary Welles.
  +
  +
==Competitors (US)==
  +
Other major American news magazines:
  +
* ''[[The Atlantic]]'' (1857)
  +
* ''[[Bloomberg Businessweek]]'' (1929)
  +
* ''[[Mother Jones (magazine)|Mother Jones]]'' (1976)
  +
* ''[[The Nation]]'' (1865)
  +
* ''[[National Review]]'' (1955)
  +
* ''[[The New Republic]]'' (1914)
  +
* ''[[The New Yorker]]'' (1925)
  +
* ''[[Newsmax]]'' (1998)
  +
* ''[[Newsweek]]'' (1933)
  +
* ''[[U.S. News & World Report]]'' (1923)
  +
* ''[[The Weekly Standard]]'' (1925–2018)
  +
* ''[[World (magazine)|WORLD]]'' (1986)
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 
{{Portal|United States}}
 
{{Portal|United States}}
 
* [[Heroes of the Environment]]
 
* [[Heroes of the Environment]]
* [[Lists of people on the cover of Time magazine|List of people on the cover of ''Time'' magazine]]
+
* [[Lists of covers of Time magazine|Lists of covers of ''Time'' magazine]]
 
* "[[The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power]]", 1991 article about [[Scientology]], by [[Richard Behar]], which received the [[Gerald Loeb Award]]
 
* "[[The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power]]", 1991 article about [[Scientology]], by [[Richard Behar]], which received the [[Gerald Loeb Award]]
* [[Is God Dead?]], one of ''Time'''s most famous covers
 
   
 
==References==
 
==References==
{{Reflist|30em}}
+
{{Reflist}}
   
 
==Bibliography==
 
==Bibliography==
* [[Baughman, James L.]] "Henry R. Luce and the Business of Journalism." ''Business & Economic History On-Line'' 9 (2011). [http://coursesa.matrix.msu.edu/~business/bhcweb/publications/BEHonline/2011/baughman.pdf online]
+
* {{citation |last=Baughman |first=James L. |title=Henry R. Luce and the Business of Journalism |work=Business & Economic History On-Line |volume=9 |year=2011 |url=http://coursesa.matrix.msu.edu/~business/bhcweb/publications/BEHonline/2011/baughman.pdf |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150402200758/http://coursesa.matrix.msu.edu/~business/bhcweb/publications/BEHonline/2011/baughman.pdf |url-status=dead |archive-date=April 2, 2015 |accessdate=October 8, 2018}}
* [[Baughman, James L.]] ''Henry R. Luce and the Rise of the American News Media'' (2001) [http://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/episodes/henry-luce/henry-r-luce-and-the-rise-of-the-american-news-media/650/ excerpt]
+
* {{Citation |last=Baughman |first=James L. |author-link=James L. Baughman |title=Henry R. Luce and the Rise of the American News Media |date=April 28, 2004 |url=https://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/episodes/henry-luce/henry-r-luce-and-the-rise-of-the-american-news-media/650/ |accessdate=October 8, 2018 |publisher=American Masters}}
* Brinkley, Alan. ''The Publisher: Henry Luce and His American Century'', Alfred A. Knopf (2010) 531 p. [https://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/20/books/20book.html "A Magazine Master Builder"] Book review by [[Janet Maslin]], ''The New York Times'', April 19, 2010 (p.&nbsp;C1 of the NY ed. April 20, 2010). Retrieved 2010-04-20
+
*{{citation |last=Brinkley |first=Alan |title=The Publisher: Henry Luce and His American Century |publisher=Alfred A. Knopf |year=2010 |isbn=978-0307592910 }}
  +
*{{Citation |url=https://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/20/books/20book.html |title=A Magazine Master Builder |last=Maslin |first=Janet |author-link=Janet Maslin |newspaper=The New York Times |department=Book review |date=April 20, 2010 |page=C1 |accessdate=April 20, 2010}}
* Brinkley, Alan. ''What Would Henry Luce Make of the Digital Age?'', TIME (April 19, 2010) [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1978794,00.html#ixzz0n9k5AEGK excerpt and text search]
+
* {{citation |last=Brinkley |first=Alan |title=What Would Henry Luce Make of the Digital Age? |magazine=TIME |date=April 19, 2010 |url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1978794,00.html#ixzz0n9k5AEGK |publisher=Atheneum |quote=excerpt and text search}}
* Elson, Robert T. ''Time Inc: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise, 1923–1941'' (1968); vol. 2: ''The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History, 1941–1960'' (1973), official corporate history
+
* {{citation |last=Elson |first=Robert T. |title=Time Inc: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise, 1923–1941 |publisher=Atheneum |year=1968 |isbn=978-0689105555 |quote=official corporate history}}
* Herzstein, Robert E. ''Henry R. Luce, Time, and the American Crusade in Asia'' (2006) [https://books.google.com/books/about/Henry_R_Luce_Time_and_the_American_Crusa.html?id=fb30H5d_jZkC excerpt and text search]
 
  +
*{{citation |last=Elson |first=Robert T. |editor-first= Duncan |editor-last=Norton-Taylor |volume=2 |title=The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History, 1941–1960 |year=1973 |isbn=978-0689105555 |quote=official corporate history}}
* Herzstein, Robert E. ''Henry R. Luce: A Political Portrait of the Man Who Created the American Century'' (1994).
 
 
* {{citation |last=Herzstein |first=Robert E. |title=Henry R. Luce, Time, and the American Crusade in Asia |year=2006 |publisher=Cambridge University Press |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=fb30H5d_jZkC |isbn=978-0521835770 }}
* Wilner, Isaiah. ''The Man Time Forgot: A Tale of Genius, Betrayal, and the Creation of Time Magazine'', HarperCollins, New York, 2006
 
  +
* {{citation |last=Herzstein |first=Robert E. |title=Henry R. Luce: A Political Portrait of the Man Who Created the American Century |year=1994 |isbn=978-0684193601 |publisher=C. Scribner's Sons |url-access=registration |url=https://archive.org/details/henryrlucepoliti00herz }}
 
* {{Citation |last=Wilner |first=Isaiah |title=The Man Time Forgot: A Tale of Genius, Betrayal, and the Creation of Time Magazine |publisher=HarperCollins |location=New York |year=2006 |isbn=978-0061747267 }}
   
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
  +
* {{Official website|http://time.com|''Time''}} – official site
{{Wikisource portal|Time (magazine)}}
 
 
* [http://time.com/vault ''Time''] magazine vault – archive of magazines and covers from 1923 through present
{{Commons category|Time Magazine}}
 
 
* [https://whittakerchambers.org/timemagazine.html ''Time''] articles by [[Whittaker Chambers]] 1939–1948 – ''Time'' on the Hiss Case, 1948–1953
* {{official website}}
 
  +
*[https://archive.org/search.php?query=Time%20Magazine&and%5B%5D=mediatype%3A%22texts%22&and%5B%5D=collection%3A%22magazine_rack%22 Archived Time Magazines] on the [[Internet Archive]]
* [http://time.com/vault/ ''Time'' Archive]&nbsp;– archive of magazines and covers from 1923 through present
 
  +
* [http://lab.culturalanalytics.info/2016/04/timeline-4535-time-magazine-covers-1923.html ''TimeLine'': 4535 Time Magazine Covers, 1923-2009] by [[Lev Manovich]] and Jeremy Douglass. A 2009 Cultural Analytics Lab project.
* [http://www.whittakerchambers.org/timemagazine.html ''Time'' articles] by Whittaker Chambers
 
 
* {{Wikisource portal-inline|Time (magazine)}}
 
 
* {{Commons category-inline|Time Magazine}}
  +
[[Category:General articles]]
 
[[Category:General articles)]]
 
[[Category:General articles)]]

Latest revision as of 12:40, 17 December 2020

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published and based in New York City. It was first published in New York City on March 3, 1923, and for many years it was run by its influential co-founder Henry Luce. A European edition (Time Europe, formerly known as Time Atlantic) is published in London and also covers the Middle East, Africa, and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition (Time Asia) is based in Hong Kong.[1] The South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, is based in Sydney. In December 2008, Time discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition.[2]

As of 2012, Time had a circulation of 3.3 million, making it the 11th-most circulated magazine in the United States, and the second-most circulated weekly behind People In July 2017, its circulation was 3,028,013; this was cut down to 2 million by late 2017. The print edition has a readership of 26 million, 20 million of whom are based in the United States. Template:Citation needed

Formerly published by New York City-based Time Inc., since November 2018 Time has been published by TIME USA, LLC, owned by Marc Benioff, who acquired it from Meredith Corporation.

History[]

File:Time Magazine - first cover.jpg

The first issue of Time (March 3, 1923), featuring Speaker Joseph G. Cannon.

Since its debut in New York City on March 3, 1923, Time magazine was first published based in New York City by Briton Hadden and Henry Luce, making it the first weekly news magazine in the United States.[3] The two had previously worked together as chairman and managing editor, respectively, of the Yale Daily News. They first called the proposed magazine Facts. They wanted to emphasize brevity, so that a busy man could read it in an hour. They changed the name to Time and used the slogan "Take Time – It's Brief".[4] Hadden was considered carefree and liked to tease Luce. He saw Time as important, but also fun, which accounted for its heavy coverage of celebrities and politicians, the entertainment industry and pop culture, criticizing it as too light for serious news.

It set out to tell the news through people, and for many decades through the late 1960s, the magazine's cover depicted a single person. More recently, Time has incorporated "People of the Year" issues which grew in popularity over the years. Notable mentions of them were Barack Obama, Steve Jobs, etc. The first issue of Time was published on March 3, 1923, featuring Joseph G. Cannon, the retired Speaker of the House of Representatives, on its cover; a facsimile reprint of Issue No. 1, including all of the articles and advertisements contained in the original, was included with copies of the February 28, 1938 issue as a commemoration of the magazine's 15th anniversary.[5] The cover price was 15¢ (equivalent to $Template:Inflation in Template:Inflation-year). On Hadden's death in 1929, Luce became the dominant man at Time and a major figure in the history of 20th-century media. According to Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1972–2004 by Robert Elson, "Roy Edward Larsen [...] was to play a role second only to Luce's in the development of Time Inc". In his book, The March of Time, 1935–1951, Raymond Fielding also noted that Larsen was "originally circulation manager and then general manager of Time, later publisher of Life, for many years president of Time Inc., and in the long history of the corporation the most influential and important figure after Luce".Template:Citation needed

Around the time they were raising $100,000 from wealthy Yale alumni such as Henry P. Davison, partner of J.P. Morgan & Co., publicity man Martin Egan and J.P. Morgan & Co. banker Dwight Morrow, Henry Luce, and Briton Hadden hired Larsen in 1922 – although Larsen was a Harvard graduate and Luce and Hadden were Yale graduates. After Hadden died in 1929, Larsen purchased 550 shares of Time Inc., using money he obtained from selling RKO stock which he had inherited from his father, who was the head of the Benjamin Franklin Keith theatre chain in New England. However, after Briton Hadden's death, the largest Time, Inc. stockholder was Henry Luce, who ruled the media conglomerate in an autocratic fashion, "at his right hand was Larsen", Time's second-largest stockholder, according to Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941. In 1929, Roy Larsen was also named a Time Inc. director and vice president. J. P. Morgan retained a certain control through two directorates and a share of stocks, both over Time and Fortune. Other shareholders were Brown Brothers W. A. Harriman & Co., and the New York Trust Company (Standard Oil).Template:Citation needed

The Time Inc. stock owned by Luce at the time of his death was worth about $109 million, and it had been yielding him a yearly dividend of more than $2.4 million, according to Curtis Prendergast's The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Changing Enterprise 1957–1983. The Larsen family's Time stock was worth around $80 million during the 1960s, and Roy Larsen was both a Time Inc. director and the chairman of its executive committee, later serving as Time's vice chairman of the board until the middle of 1979. According to the September 10, 1979, issue of The New York Times, "Mr. Larsen was the only employee in the company's history given an exemption from its policy of mandatory retirement at age 65."

After Time magazine began publishing its weekly issues in March 1923, Roy Larsen was able to increase its circulation by using U.S. radio and movie theaters around the world. It often promoted both Time magazine and U.S. political and corporate interests. According to The March of Time, as early as 1924, Larsen had brought Time into the infant radio business with the broadcast of a 15-minute sustaining quiz show entitled Pop Question which survived until 1925". Then, in 1928, Larsen "undertook the weekly broadcast of a 10-minute programme series of brief news summaries, drawn from current issues of Time magazine [...] which was originally broadcast over 33 stations throughout the United States".Template:Citation needed

Larsen next arranged for a 30-minute radio program, The March of Time, to be broadcast over CBS, beginning on March 6, 1931. Each week, the program presented a dramatisation of the week's news for its listeners, thus Time magazine itself was brought "to the attention of millions previously unaware of its existence", according to Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941, leading to an increased circulation of the magazine during the 1930s. Between 1931 and 1937, Larsen's The March of Time radio program was broadcast over CBS radio and between 1937 and 1945 it was broadcast over NBC radio – except for the 1939 to 1941 period when it was not aired. People Magazine was based on Time's People page.

In 1987, Jason McManus succeeded Henry Grunwald as editor-in-chief[6] and oversaw the transition before Norman Pearlstine succeeded him in 1995. In 1989, when Time, Inc. and Warner Communications merged, Time became part of Time Warner, along with Warner Bros.In 2000, Time became part of AOL Time Warner, which reverted to the name Time Warner in 2003.

In 2007, Time moved from a Monday subscription/newsstand delivery to a schedule where the magazine goes on sale Fridays, and is delivered to subscribers on Saturday. The magazine actually began in 1923 with Friday publication.

During early 2007, the year's first issue was delayed for roughly a week due to "editorial changes", including the layoff of 49 employees.[7]

In 2009, Time announced that they were introducing a personalized print magazine, Mine, mixing content from a range of Time Warner publications based on the reader's preferences. The new magazine met with a poor reception, with criticism that its focus was too broad to be truly personal.[8]

The magazine has an online archive with the unformatted text for every article published. The articles are indexed and were converted from scanned images using optical character recognition technology. The minor errors in the text are remnants of the conversion into digital format.

Time Inc. and Apple have come to an agreement wherein U.S. subscribers to Time will be able to read the iPad versions for free, at least until the two companies sort out a viable digital subscription model.[9]Template:Clarify

In January 2013, Time Inc. announced that it would cut nearly 500 jobs – roughly 6% of its 8,000 staff worldwide.[10] Although Time magazine has maintained high sales, its ad pages have declined significantly over time.[11]

Also in January 2013, Time Inc. named Martha Nelson as the first female editor-in-chief of its magazine division.[12] In September 2013, Nancy Gibbs was named as the first female managing editor of Time magazine.[12]

In November 2017, Meredith Corporation announced its acquisition of Time, Inc., backed by Koch Equity Development.[13] In March 2018, only six weeks after the closure of the sale, Meredith announced that it would explore the sale of Time and sister magazines Fortune, Money, Sports Illustrated, since they did not align with the company's lifestyle brands.[14]

In 2017, editor and journalist Catherine Mayer, who also founded the Women's Equality Party in the UK, sued Time through attorney Ann Olivarius for sex and age discrimination.[15] The suit was resolved in 2018.[16]

In September 2018, Meredith Corporation announced that it would re-sell Time to Marc Benioff and his wife Lynne for $190 million, which was completed on October 31, 2018. Although Benioff is the chairman and co-CEO of Salesforce.com, Time will remain separate from the company, and Benioff will not be involved in its daily operations.[17][18] The sale was completed on October 31, 2018. Time USA, LLC the parent company of the magazine is owned by Marc Benioff.

Circulation[]

During the second half of 2009, the magazine had a 34.9% decline in newsstand sales.[19] During the first half of 2010, another decline of at least one-third in Time magazine sales occurred. In the second half of 2010, Time magazine newsstand sales declined by about 12% to just over 79,000 copies per week.Template:Citation needed

As of 2012, it had a circulation of 3.3 million, making it the 11th-most circulated magazine in the United States, and the second-most circulated weekly behind People.[20] As of July 2017, its circulation was 3,028,013.[21] In October 2017, Time cut its circulation to two million.[22] The print edition has a readership of 26 million, 20 million of whom are based in the United States.

Style[]

Time initially possessed a distinctive writing style, making regular use of inverted sentences. This was parodied in 1936 by Wolcott Gibbs in The New Yorker: "Backward ran sentences until reeled the mind [...] Where it all will end, knows God!"[23]

Until the mid-1970s, Time had a weekly section called "Listings", which contained capsule summaries and/or reviews of then-current significant films, plays, musicals, television programs, and literary bestsellers similar to The New Yorker's "Current Events" section.[24]

Time is also known for its signature red border, first introduced in 1927.[25] The border has only been changed six times since 1927:

  • The issue released shortly after the September 11 attacks on the United States featured a black border to symbolize mourning. However, this was a special "extra" edition published quickly for the breaking news of the event; the next regularly scheduled issue contained the red border.
  • The April 28, 2008, Earth Day issue, dedicated to environmental issues, contained a green border.[26]
  • The September 19, 2011, issue, commemorating the 10th anniversary of September 11 attacks, had a metallic silver border.
  • Another silver border was used in the December 31, 2012, issue, noting Barack Obama's selection as Person of the Year.
  • The November 28/December 5, 2016, issue, also featuring a silver border covering the Most Influential Photos of All Time.
  • The June 15, 2020, issue of the protests surrounding the death of George Floyd is the first time the red border of TIME includes the names of people. The cover, by artist Titus Kaphar, depicts an African-American mother holding her child.
  • The September 21 & 28, 2020, issue on the American response to the coronavirus pandemic featured a black border.[27]

Former president Richard Nixon has been among the most frequently-featured on the front page of Time, having appeared 55 times from the August 25, 1952 issue to the May 2, 1994 issue.[28]

In 2007, Time engineered a style overhaul of the magazine. Among other changes, the magazine reduced the red cover border to promote featured stories, enlarged column titles, reduced the number of featured stories, increased white space around articles, and accompanied opinion pieces with photographs of the writers. The changes were met with both criticism and praise.[29][30][31]

In October 2020, for the first time in its 97-year history, Time magazine is replacing the logo on the cover.[32] "Few events will shape the world to come more than the result of the upcoming US presidential election" Edward Felsenthal, Time’s editor-in-chief and chief executive wrote.

Special editions[]

Person of the Year[]

Main article: Time Person of the Year

TimeTemplate:'s most famous feature throughout its history has been the annual "Person of the Year" (formerly "Man of the Year") cover story, in which Time recognizes the individual or group of individuals who have had the biggest impact on news headlines over the past 12 months. The distinction is supposed to go to the person who, "for good or ill", has most affected the course of the year; it is, therefore, not necessarily an honor or a reward. In the past, such figures as Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin have been Man of the Year.

In 2006, Person of the Year was designated as "You", a move that was met with split reviews. Some thought the concept was creative; others wanted an actual person of the year. Editors Pepper and Timmer reflected that, if it had been a mistake, "we're only going to make it once".[33]

In 2017, Time named The Silence Breakers, people who came forward with personal stories of sexual harassment, as Person of the Year.[34]

Time 100[]

Main article: Time 100

In recent years, Time has assembled an annual list of the 100 most influential people of the year. Originally, they had made a list of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century. These issues usually have the front cover filled with pictures of people from the list and devote a substantial amount of space within the magazine to the 100 articles about each person on the list. In some cases, over 100 people have been included, as when two people have made the list together, sharing one spot.

The magazine also compiled "All-TIME 100 best novels" and "All-TIME 100 best movies" lists in 2005,[35][36][37] "The 100 Best TV Shows of All-TIME" in 2007,[38] and "All-TIME 100 Fashion Icons" in 2012.[39]

In February 2016, Time mistakenly included the male author Evelyn Waugh on its "100 Most Read Female Writers in College Classes" list (he was 97th on the list). The error created much media attention and concerns about the level of basic education among the magazine's staff.[40] Time later issued a retraction.[40] In a BBC interview with Justin Webb, Professor Valentine Cunningham of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, described the mistake as "a piece of profound ignorance on the part of Time magazine".[41]

Red X covers[]

File:Time Magazine red X covers.jpg

Time red X covers: from left to right, Adolf Hitler, Saddam Hussein, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, and Osama bin Laden

During its history, on five nonconsecutive occasions, Time has released a special issue with a cover showing an X scrawled over the face of a man or a national symbol. The first Time magazine with a red X cover was released on May 7, 1945, showing a red X over Adolf Hitler's face. The second X cover was released more than three months later on August 20, 1945, with a black X (to date, the magazine's only such use of a black X) covering the flag of Japan, representing the recent surrender of Japan and which signaled the end of World War II. Fifty-eight years later, on April 21, 2003, Time released another issue with a red X over Saddam Hussein's face, two weeks after the start of the Invasion of Iraq. On June 13, 2006, Time magazine printed a red X cover issue following the death of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi in a U.S. airstrike in Iraq. The most recent red X cover issue of Time was published on May 2, 2011, after the death of Osama bin Laden.[42] The next red X cover issue of Time will feature a red X scrawled over the year 2020 and the declaration “the worst year ever”.[43][44]

[]

The November 02, 2020 issue of the U.S. edition of Time is the first time that the cover logo "Time" was not used. The issue's cover had a replacement logo "Vote" along with artwork by Shepard Fairey, of a voter wearing a pandemic face mask, and accompanied by information on how to vote. The magazine's Editor-in-Chief and CEO of TIME Edward Felsenthal explained this decision for a one-time cover logo change as a "rare moment, one that will separate history into before and after for generations.[45]

Time for Kids[]

Main article: Time for Kids

Time for Kids is a division magazine of Time that is especially published for children and is mainly distributed in classrooms. TFK contains some national news, a "Cartoon of the Week", and a variety of articles concerning popular culture. An annual issue concerning the environment is distributed near the end of the U.S. school term. The publication rarely exceeds ten pages front and back.

Time LightBox[]

Time LightBox is a photography blog created and curated by Time's photo department that was launched in 2011.[46] In 2011, Life picked LightBox for its Photo Blog Awards.[47]

Staff[]

File:Time Field Operations at Casper Events Center in Casper, Wyoming.jpg

Time Field Operations in Casper, Wyoming during the 2017 total solar eclipse

Richard Stengel was the managing editor from May 2006 to October 2013, when he joined the U.S. State Department.[48][49] Nancy Gibbs was the managing editor from September 2013 until September 2017.[49] She was succeeded by Edward Felsenthal, who had been Time's digital editor.[50]

Editors[]

  • Briton Hadden (1923–1929)
  • Henry Luce (1929–1949)
  • T. S. Matthews (1949–1953)
  • Roy Alexander (1960–1966)

Managing editors[]

Template:Refimprove

Managing Editor Editor From Editor To
John S. Martin[51] 1929 1937
Manfred Gottfried[51] 1937 1943
T. S. Matthews[51] 1943 1949
Roy Alexander 1949 1960
Otto Fuerbringer 1960 1968
Henry Grunwald 1968 1977
Ray Cave 1979 1985
Jason McManus 1985 1987
Henry Muller 1987 1993
James R. Gaines 1993 1995
Walter Isaacson 1996 2001
Jim Kelly 2001 2005
Richard Stengel 2006 2013
Nancy Gibbs 2013 2017
Edward Felsenthal 2017 present

Notable contributors[]

  • Aravind Adiga, Time correspondent for three years, winner of the 2008 Man Booker Prize for fiction
  • James Agee, book and movie editor for Time
  • Curt Anderson, Member of the Maryland House of Delegates
  • Ann Blackman, deputy news chief in Washington[52]
  • Ian Bremmer, current Editor-at-Large
  • Margaret Carlson, the first female columnist for Time
  • Robert Cantwell, writer, editor 1936—1941
  • Whittaker Chambers, writer, senior editor 1939—1948
  • Richard Corliss, film critic for the magazine since 1980
  • Brad Darrach, film critic
  • Nigel Dennis, drama critic
  • John Gregory Dunne, reporter; later author and screenwriter
  • Peter Economy, author and editor
  • Alexander Eliot, art editor from 1945 to 1961, author of 18 books on art, mythology, and history, including Three Hundred Years of American Painting, published by Time-Life Books
  • John T. Elson, religion editor who wrote famous 1966 "Is God Dead?" cover story
  • Dean E. Fischer, reporter and editor, 1964–81
  • Nancy Gibbs, essayist and editor-at-large; has written more than 100 Time cover stories
  • Lev Grossman, wrote primarily about books and technology for the magazine
  • Deena Guzder, a human rights journalist and author
  • Wilder Hobson, reporter in 1930s and '40s
  • Robert Hughes, Time's long-tenured art critic
  • Pico Iyer, essayist and novelist, essayist for Time since 1986
  • Alvin M. Josephy Jr., photo editor 1952–60; also a historian and Hollywood screenwriter
  • Weldon Kees, critic
  • Joe Klein, author (Primary Colors) and a Time columnist who wrote the "In the Arena" column
  • Louis Kronenberger, drama critic 1938–1961
  • Andre Laguerre, Paris bureau chief 1948–1956, London bureau chief 1951–1956, also wrote about sports for Time; later longtime managing editor of Sports Illustrated
  • Nathaniel Lande, author, filmmaker, and former creative director of Time
  • Will Lang Jr. 1936–1968, Time Life International
  • Marshall Loeb, writer and editor from 1956 through 1980
  • John Moody, Vatican and Rome correspondent 1986 through 1996
  • Jim Murray, West Coast correspondent 1948–1955
  • Lance Morrow, backpage essayist from 1976 through 2000
  • Roger Rosenblatt, essayist from 1979 until 2006
  • Richard Schickel, film critic from 1965 through 2010
  • Hugh Sidey, political reporter and columnist, beginning in 1957
  • Donald L. Barlett and James B. Steele, investigative reporters who won two National Magazine Awards while at Time
  • Joel Stein, columnist who wrote the Joel 100 just after Time Magazine's Most Influential issue in 2006
  • Calvin Trillin, food writer, was a reporter for Time from 1960 to 1963
  • David Von Drehle, current Editor-at-Large
  • Lasantha Wickrematunge, journalist
  • Robert Wright, contributing editor
  • Fareed Zakaria, current Editor-at-Large

Snapshot: 1940 editorial staff[]

In 1940, William Saroyan lists the full Time editorial department in the play, Love's Old Sweet Song.[53]

This 1940 snapshot includes:

  • Editor: Henry R. Luce
  • Managing Editors: Manfred Gottfried, Frank Norris, T.S. Matthews
  • Associate Editors: Carlton J. Balliett Jr., Robert Cantwell, Laird S. Goldsborough, David W. Hulburd Jr., John Stuart Martin, Fanny Saul, Walter Stockly, Dana Tasker, Charles Weretenbaker
  • Contributing Editors: Roy Alexander, John F. Allen, Robert W. Boyd Jr., Roger Butterfield, Whittaker Chambers, James G. Crowley, Robert Fitzgerald, Calvin Fixx, Walter Graebner, John Hersey, Sidney L. James, Eliot Janeway, Pearl Kroll, Louis Kronenberger, Thomas K. Krug, John T. McManus, Sherry Mangan, Peter Matthews, Robert Neville, Emeline Nollen, Duncan Norton-Taylor, Sidney A. Olson, John Osborne, Content Peckham, Green Peyton, Williston C. Rich Jr., Winthrop Sargeant, Robert Sherrod, Lois Stover, Leon Svirsky, Felice Swados, Samuel G. Welles Jr., Warren Wilhelm, and Alfred Wright Jr.
  • Editorial Assistants: Ellen May Ach, Sheila Baker, Sonia Bigman, Elizabeth Budelrnan, Maria de Blasio, Hannah Durand, Jean Ford, Dorothy Gorrell, Helen Gwynn, Edith Hind, Lois Holsworth, Diana Jackson, Mary V. Johnson, Alice Lent, Kathrine Lowe, Carolyn Marx, Helen McCreery, Gertrude McCullough, Mary Louise Mickey, Anna North, Mary Palmer, Tabitha Petran, Elizabeth Sacartoff, Frances Stevenson, Helen Vind, Eleanor Welch, and Mary Welles.

Competitors (US)[]

Other major American news magazines:

  • The Atlantic (1857)
  • Bloomberg Businessweek (1929)
  • Mother Jones (1976)
  • The Nation (1865)
  • National Review (1955)
  • The New Republic (1914)
  • The New Yorker (1925)
  • Newsmax (1998)
  • Newsweek (1933)
  • U.S. News & World Report (1923)
  • The Weekly Standard (1925–2018)
  • WORLD (1986)

See also[]

Template:Portal

  • Heroes of the Environment
  • Lists of covers of Time magazine
  • "The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power", 1991 article about Scientology, by Richard Behar, which received the Gerald Loeb Award

References[]

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  26. MSNBC-TV report by Andrea Mitchell, April 17, 2008, 1:45 pm .
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  47. "Life.com's 2011 Photo Blog Awards", Life.com, as saved by the Wayback Machine on January 6, 2012. The citation reads:
    Elegant and commanding, intimate and worldly, Time magazine's beautifully designed LightBox blog is an essential destination for those who appreciate contemporary photography. Much more than photojournalism, Lightbox (which, like LIFE.com, is owned by Time Inc.) explores today's new documentary and fine art photography from the perspective of the photo editors at Time – arguably the strongest editors working in their field today. LightBox offers fascinating dispatches from every corner of the world...
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External links[]